Technology and Society
Technology refers to the utilization of tools, techniques and systems to solve a particular problem or some purpose. Most countries have integrated various types of technologies like energy technology and engineering to solve problems. The technologies adapted have proved effective. For instance, some countries have adopted the latest technology to develop vehicles that are not powered by gasoline. This is to overcome the negative effects caused by cars powered by gasoline. That is global warming. Increase in oil consumption and pollution. The technology has had a lot of advantages to the community.
For example, it has helped reduce environmental pollution caused by cars powered by gasoline. It has also helped improve productivity in the society. However, technology and society has become a major issue in the society because of the negative impact of technology on the society. For instance, technology affects the health of human beings as it leads to unemployment. This paper analyzes technology and society. It examines how technology has helped develop cars not powered by gasoline. Others topics to be analyzed include overview of technology and society, advantages and disadvantages and benefits linked to hybrid cars.
Overview of technology and society
Technology refers to the usage of various tools and knowledge to solve a problem or achieve a certain objective. The history of technology is related to the history of invention of different types of tools and techniques. It is also related to the history of humanity. The background knowledge has enabled people to develop various things. Most of the scientific research and innovations have become possible via technologies. The advances in technologies have helped human beings move from one place to another which would be difficulty minus technology. It has also helped them carry out various innovations in the automobile industries. The increase in innovation in automobile industries is as a result of advances in energy technology especially ethanol and solar and engineering (Hjorth 200).
Advantages and disadvantages of technology in the society
Technology has a lot of benefits to the society. For instance, technology has led to globalization. Globalization refers to a process through which regional economies, societies and cultures have been integrated via a global network of various things. For instance, the economies, cultures and societies have become integrated through improvement in communication. Communication technology has contributed a lot to improvement in communication. For example, it has led to development of new communication methods like telephones which have made it easy for societies to transfer information from one place to another and hence globalization. In addition, technology has helped in enhancing transport from one area to another. This is because people have been able to develop various means of transport like vehicles, trains and planes. This has in turn helped in the movement of people. It has also helped in the movement of goods from one country to another (Wetmore &Johnson 2009).
Apart from leading to globalization, the various types of technology like energy technology have led to creation of jobs. Before, the development of various technologies, people in the society were unable to get jobs as they did not have many opportunities. A series of studies have shown that advances in various types of technologies like energy technology leads to economic growth, increase in productivity and improvement in living standards in many countries. Technology is not responsible for unemployment in many countries thou many people claim it causes unemployment. The emergence of new ideas, production methods and diffusion of such ideas leads to destruction. New technology leads to destruction of jobs in some industries especially in low skilled industries, but it leads to creation of new jobs in other industries that require different expertise.
The destruction of old jobs and creation of new jobs has led to net job creation in many countries. This is because new industries replace old industries in the country as workers adapt new skills so as to be able to meet the new requirements. Most people have associated technologies with loose of jobs because of technological changes and restructuring in developing countries. Most of the developing countries are not able to keep with the advances in technology and this has led to unemployment and social problems. However, technology is not the main cause of unemployment and social problems in those countries, but poor management (Wetmore &Johnson 2009).
Developing countries and developed countries are supposed to develop the right policies so as to overcome the impact of technology. Most of the policies being used in the countries do not enhance technology in the country. This has made it hard for the countries to realize the benefits associated with technology. For instance, the countries have slow economic growth and also high unemployment rates. Developing new policies will help the countries achieve economic growth and reduce the rate of unemployment in the countries. Most researchers argue that countries need to develop the right technology policies so as to be able to accept the advantages of technology (Goyder 2004).
Moreover, technology has led to establishment of solutions to overcome social problems and environmental problems. There are various issues that face the society like pollution and global warming. Technology has helped the society overcome such problems by developing new solutions to the problems. For example, it has helped overcome global warming and pollution as countries have been able to develop renewable energy sources like solar and ethanol. The alternative sources of fuel are developed using technology techniques. This has helped reduce the negative impact caused by non renewable energy sources like fossil fuels. Burning of fossil fuels like coal and other petroleum products leads to production of green house gases (Kleinman 2007). For instance, it leads to production of carbon dioxide and methane gas.
The gases have adverse effects on the environment as they cause air pollution, green house effect and hence global warming. Apart from human activities, vehicles are also considered a major cause of global warming through production of carbon dioxide. Most of the fuels used in vehicles are burned down and released into the atmosphere. This in turn leads to green house effect and global warming. As a result of various types of technologies like energy technology and motor and engine technology, countries have developed alternative fuels. They have also developed vehicles that are able to use the alternative fuels like ethanol and solar energy. Hence, this has helped solve societal problems (Khan &Eichler 2007).
Though technology has a lot of benefits to the society, it has some downsides. First, technology has led to loose of jobs in the society. John Goyder (2004) in his book has analyzed how technology caused loose of jobs in Canada. The author argues that the integration of various technologies in the society has led to increase in unemployment rates in the country. This is because most people in the society do not have the skills required to work in new industries which are created. In addition, poor technology policies in the country have led to the loose of jobs as the government is not able to integrate technology well. Most of the people working in automobile industry have lost jobs as new jobs are created in the industry (Goyder 2004).
In addition, the technology has led to increase in global warming and other social issues. The advance in technology in many countries has led to industrialization. Most people have attributed global warming and air pollution with globalization. The increase in industries has led to increase in the amount of green house gases released into the atmosphere. This has in turn led to global warming and affected human life. For example, it has led to increase in diseases resulting from global warming and pollution like lung infections. In addition to diseases, the advances in technology have led to increase in mortality rate in various countries. John Goyder and Hjorth, Eichler, Khan and Haugen argue that technology has led to increase in crime in the society. For example, computer technology and communication technology has led to increase in cyber crimes and other types of crimes .This is because most of the people rely on the current technology to hack computers in various organizations (Hjorth, Eichler &Khan 2007).
How technology has helped in development of cars that do not depend on gasoline
Most of the automobile companies have developed vehicles that have an internal combustion engine for almost twelve decades (Hjorth, Eichler &Khan 2007). The internal combustion engine is a type of engine in which the combustion of fuel happens in the combustion chamber. The combustion of the fuel needs air. In internal combustion engine, the high temperatures and pressure gases produced apply direct force to some parts of the engine. For instance, the pressure gases and temperatures apply force to the pistons and nozzles and in turn the components produce mechanical energy that is made to move the vehicle. An internal combustion engine refers to an engine in which burning of fuels is intermittent. There are various types of internal combustion engines. That is the four stroke engine and the two stroke engines. Vehicles having internal combustion engine rely on fossil fuel as the main source of energy and this has negative impact on people and environment (Hjorth, Eichler &Khan 2007). The growth in technology has led to development of hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles are considered an alternative to traditional vehicles that are powered using gasoline.
A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more different types of fuels. The term is commonly used to refer to a hybrid electric vehicle that has an internal combustion engine and an electric motor that is external. Hybrid vehicles use different sources of power. For instance, the vehicles can use electricity and hydrogen. In addition, the vehicles can use solar energy and wind energy as a source of energy. Other sources of energy for hybrid vehicles include an external rechargeable energy storage system. Technology has helped automobile companies to develop engines that are compatible with the fuels listed above. This has enabled the vehicles to use the fuels above instead of fossil fuel like gasoline. It has also helped develop batteries that are compatible with various sources of energy like electricity, solar and ethanol (Haugen 2007).
There are different types of hybrid vehicles. For instance, the two wheeled and cycle type vehicles. The Mopeds and electric vehicle are types of hybrid vehicles. The vehicles function differently from vehicles that only use internal combustion engine. The hybrid vehicles deliver power through the internal combustion engine or the electric motor and also the muscles of the rider (Sigler &Dewey 1997). Most of the vehicles developed during the 19th century used this technology. The vehicles were propelled using two devices. Apart from having vehicles propelled used two devices, the technology has enabled automobile companies to develop hybrid fuel vehicles. Most of the hybrid vehicles are referred to as dual mode vehicles as they use different sources of energy. Some of the vehicles can use both diesel and electrical power.
The vehicles are able to switch from one fuel to another depending on the condition. For instance, the electric trolleybuses use both diesel and electricity. Other vehicles use different types of fuels that are mixed in a single tank. For instance, the vehicles can use ethanol and biobutanol. Such vehicles are referred to as flexible fuel vehicles. In addition to developing vehicles that can use two fuels from a single tank, the technology has enabled automobile companies to modify vehicles. Some of the vehicles have been modified so as to use other sources of fuels that are available apart from gasoline. For example, some of the vehicles have been modified to use auto gas and waste vegetable oil that has been converted into bio diesel (Fallon 1999).
The picture below shows a Ford vehicle that has been modified so as to use ethanol. Ford Escape hybrid was the first hybrid vehicle having a flexible fuel capability. The vehicle was able to use ethanol. The development of vehicles that use ethanol, solar energy and electricity as alternative sources of energy has led to increase in production of such fuels. The United States government has increased the production of ethanol to replace petroleum fuels. The United States is considered the largest producer of ethanol fuel in the world. The country has produced huge amounts of oil since 2005.For example in 2009; the country produced 10.6 billion gallons of ethanol. This accounted for 89% of ethanol produced by Brazil and US.
The increase in production of ethanol is as a result of the increase in demand for ethanol fuel in vehicles. Ethanol is used as oxygenate to gasoline. It is mostly used in form low level blends. It is also used as fuel in E85 flex fuel vehicles. For example, flexible fuel vehicles like cars, trucks can use ethanol and gasoline. The vehicles can use pure gasoline or 85% ethanol. Most of the vehicles in United States are able to use a blend of upto10% ethanol. A large percentage of motor manufacturers have started producing vehicles that use high amounts of ethanol blends using the current technology. The number of flexible vehicles in the country has increased for the last two decades. For instance, in December 2009, the numbers of E85 flex fuel vehicles in the country were 8.4 million (Fallon 1999).
Benefits of hybrid vehicles
Hybrid vehicles have a lot of benefits. First, hybrid vehicles help in reduction of emission of green house gases and reduction in consumption of fuel. Hybrid vehicles release low amounts of greenhouse gases compared to vehicles that internal combustion engine. This is because the vehicles are able to use renewable fuels like ethanol, solar and wind. The renewable energy sources have low amounts of green house gases like carbon dioxide. When the fuels are burned down they release little amounts of carbon dioxide and methane gas. This in turn helps reduce pollution in the country and global warming. On the other hand, vehicle that have internal combustion engine release green house gases as they use fuels like gasoline. The fuels contain greenhouse gases that cause global warming and pollution. The emissions from hybrid vehicles are getting close to the levels recommended by the environmental protection agency.
In other cases the levels are even lower than the level stated by environmental protection agency. The levels stated by Enviormental ptotection agency are 5.5 metric tones of carbon dioxide. Most of the hybrid vehicles have a lower level than that stated by the agency. The three most common hybrid vehicles like Honda civic, Honda insight and Toyota Prius have a lower level of 4.1, 3.5 and 3.5 respectively. The automobile companies have set high standards. Research has showed that hybrid vehicles developed using the current technology can help reduce emission of smog pollutants by 90% and also carbon dioxide by half. Hence, the development of hybrid vehicles and flexible fuel vehicles has helped eliminate issues in the society (Bridgstock 1998).
Further, the development of hybrid vehicles and dual mode vehicles has helped reduce the consumption of fuel in the country. The reduction in consumption of fuel is as a result of various factors. For instance, it is as a result of the engine and electric motor. Most of the hybrid vehicles have an engine and electric motor. The vehicles rely on the two devices when it is necessary and this result to a smaller engine size. A small engine has a small internal loose of energy. In addition, the vehicles are able to store some energy and save fuel consumption. The vehicles have a noteworthy battery storage capacity to store energy and use it later. The vehicles also have the capability to recapture a certain amount of energy when braking. The energy is always wasted as heat. The regenerative braking helps convert kinetic energy to electrical energy (Bridgstock 1998).
Technology has had both positive and negative impact on the society. First, technology has led to economic growth in many countries. Countries that have integrated technology in their activities have benefited a lot compared to countries that have not. Technology enables movement of ideas and products from one country to another and this leads to economic growth. In addition, technology has led to employment in many countries as governments have developed jobs. It has also helped eliminate social issues and environmental issues in the society like global warming and pollution due to development of new vehicles that use renewable energy sources. Though technology has a lot advantages, it has some disadvantages.
Technology has led to loose of jobs in countries that do not have good technology policies. It has also led to increase in pollution and global warming and crimes. The advance in technology has led to development of hybrid and dual mode vehicles. The vehicles have different types of devices and also use different types of fuels. Most of the automobile companies have been able to develop engines that are compatible with other fuels like ethanol, wind and electricity. This has made it easy for the vehicles to use non renewable fuels. It has also led to development of batteries that are able to save energy for future use. The hybrid vehicles have a lot of benefits in terms of fuel consumption and pollution. The vehicles emit low levels of green house gases and hence the best way to reduce pollution.
Sample of hybrid vehicle
Bridgstock,M .Science, technology, and society. An introduction.Cambridge University Press, 1998
Fallon,D. Technology and society. Coursewise, 1999
Goyer,J. Technology and society. A canadian perspective. University of Toronto Press, 2004
Hjorth,L.S.,Eichler,B.A.,&Khan,A.S. Technology and society. Issues for the 21st century and beyond.Prentice Hall,2007
Haugen,D.M. Technology and Society. Greenhaven Press, 2007
Hjorth,L.S. Technology and Society. Crossroads to the 21st Century. McGraw-Hill, 2000
Khan,A.S.,&Eichler. Technology and society.Issues for the 21st century and beyond.Prentice Hall, 2007
Kleinman,D.L. Science and technology in society.From biotechnology to the Internet. Wiley-Blackwell, 2005
Sigler,J.A.,&Dewey,J.Science, technology, and society. University Press of America, 1997
Wetmore,M.J.,&Johnson,D.Technology and society.Building our sociotechnical future.MIT Press,2009
The advances in technology have had both negative effects and positive effects on the society. For instance, the technology has helped develop various types of machines which have benefited the society. For example, it has helped in the development of various types of car that do not depend on gasoline. The cars can be powered using various products developed using the current technology like ethanol and solar. This has helped improve the environment by reducing pollution. There are various subtopics that will be analyzed in the essay like;
1. Overview of technology and society
2. The impact of technology to the society (both positive and negative)
3. How technology has helped in development of cars that do not depend on gasoline
4. The benefits of inventing such cars to the society
The essay will determine how technology has helped invent cars that depend on other sources of fuel like ethanol and solar instead of gasoline and the benefits to the society.
Goyer,J. Technology and society. A canadian perspective. University of Toronto Press, 2004
The author analyzes how technology affects the society and how it can be prevented. It will help comprehend the advantages of technological advances like development of alternative vehicles and their impact on the society.
Hjorth,L.S.,Eichler,B.A.,&Khan,A.S.Technology and society: issues for the 21st century and beyond.Prentice Hall,2007
The author analyzes the various issues resulting from technology and technology. Technology has led to various inventions that have affected the society negatively. The author argues that the society should be educated on how to use technology well to invent inventions that are not harmful to the society. It will help in understanding how the society ha used technology positively.
Haugen,D.M.Technology and Society.Greenhaven Press, 2007
The author analyzes the various impacts of technological advances. The book will help in understanding how the technology has affected be society. It will also help one understand the various inventions associated with technology.
Hjorth,L.S.,.Technology and Society: Crossroads to the 21st Century.McGraw-Hill, 2000
The author examines various advances in technology and their impact. Hence, the book will help in understanding the research topic.
Wetmore,M.J.,&Johnson,D.Technology and society: building our sociotechnical future.MIT Press,2009
The author analyzes the effects of technology on the society. The book will help one understand the research topic.
Khan,A.S.,&Eichler.Technology and society.issues for the 21st century and beyond.Prentice Hall, 2007
The authors discuss the effects of technology in the society. The book will help one understand the impact of technology.
Bridgstock,M .Science, technology, and society: an introduction.Cambridge University Press, 1998
The author examines the importance of technology in the society.
Fallon,D.Technology and society. Coursewise, 1999
The author analyzes the impact of technology on the society both positively and negatively.
Kleinman,D.L.Science and technology in society: from biotechnology to the Internet. Wiley-Blackwell, 2005
The author examines how technology has shaped the society, hence the book is essential in understanding the topic.
Sigler,J.A.,&Dewey,J.Science, technology, and society. University Press of America, 1997
The authors have analyzed the importance of technology in the society and also the downside of technology. The book will help in understanding the topic being studied.
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