Science And Math: Decimals

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Objectives

Students will be able to subtract as well as add decimals

Students will be able to multiply decimals

Students will be able to divide decimals

Students will be able to round off decimals


Materials and resources

Stationery

A writing board

Writing material

Illustrational text

Projector


Differentiation of instruction

To effectively differentiate instruction so as to address the diverse needs of students;

I will ensure that I apply a number of strategies to reach out to students with language disabilities in my class. I shall utilize hands on materials to enhance their comprehension of the math concept to be learnt. I shall also use step by step models of solving math problems.


Problem solving and inquiring strategies

Shall include encouraging students to seek clarification in everything the don’t comprehend

Concrete manipulative to help develop science and fraction/decimal sense

The projector shall come in handy to illustrated points that are complex reinforced by graphics.


Narrative

To further enhance the unit of study, I develop the following narrative which addresses the assignment criteria as well as comes up with specific examples from the unit of study while stating my rationale.To begin with, I shall introduce the topic, that is, decimals and ask students what they think decimals are. This is the introductory phase and as Rezba et al. (2002) notes, it is always important to get a feel of how students perceive a given topic way before the actual discussion begins so as to tailor the particular discussion towards the specific concerns raised. I will give the students the writing materials and ask them to write explanatory notes on what hey think decimals are. Next, after reviewing their response, I shall get to understand the specific areas of interest I need to address. It is important to note that dividing the students into groups of say 10 shall be beneficial as far as the introductory phase is concerned.


Assignment criteria

The assessment in this case shall be both formative as well as normative. According to Pettig (2000) normative assessment is critical as far as deriving a judgment with regard to the performance of a student is concerned. In this case, I shall express results fro the summative assessment in grades or percentages. Lee et al.  (2008) notes that normative assessment is critical in availing information to students so hat they can come up with valid assessment of their performance as well as how effective the learning strategies are.  On my part, I shall be able to discern any aspects of the topic that has not been well understood and which needs elaboration as well as more attention so as to ensure that each and every student is moving in the same speed as far as the topic is concerned. It is hence important to note that as far as formative assessments are concerned, timely adjustments can be made so as to take corrective action where one is needed.


A discussion of the science processes used

Basic Processes

 

Observation

In the observation process, we have data gathering which utilizes a single or several senses.

In this case, I can distribute a number of blank papers to students and after listing a number of fractions on the board and ask them to indicate in the blank pieces of papers they already have how the fractions would appear in the decimal form. This should be an individual process other than a group undertaking so that it can be easy to discern and unique problems specific students may have as they solve the problems.

Classifying

This is essentially a way of bringing together a set of objects. This is informed by the various traits as well as characteristics of the objects that can be identified or observed.

For example, I would list some single decimal and double decimal figures and ask the students to classify the same as appropriate

Communicating

Here, there is the utilization of graphic symbols as well as words to make a representation of numbers or figures.

For example, in this case, I would give students some figures and ask them to list the same in words. The projector would also come in handy in this case for purposes of graphical representation. For instance, I can project a pie chary and give the sectors in percentages after which I would ask students to list the same in decimal format.

Measuring

In this case, a given attribute is likened to a standard reference for purposes of observation.

For example, in this case, I would ask students to draw a line which they can then divide into two and represent the two halves inform of decimals.

Predicting

Here, events projection is informed by an information body. This may be done by seeking and finding a past event that can be linked to a current occurrence.

For instance, in this case, I can ask students to draw a line after which like in the measurement stage above, they divide it into two. On dividing it into two and labeling the two parts in decimal figures, I can then ask them to divide one of the halves into two again and then label the two ‘new’ halves in decimal format.

Inferring

Here, an assumption can be generated for purposes of explaining or coming up with answers to an occurrence or event that is has been already observed.

In this case for instance, I could draw a line and divide it roughly into five equal parts. Now, students will be already familiar with deriving decimals from a line divided into four due to the prediction phase above. This shall hence be a little bit challenging to the student’s bur nevertheless less I can ask them to make a wise guess.

Integrated Processes

 

Identifying and controlling Variables

In this process, we have a standard of keeping apart a given system’s affluent. The isolation such an affluent is basically for the purposes of deriving the specific role of the same.

For example, I can use the projector to come up with or display a pie chart which first demonstrates two sectors. The sectors could fires be displayed using percentages i.e. each sector with a 50% share of the pie. Then I can simulate a reduction in one of the sector which essentially reduces or cuts down the other sector hence reducing the percentage up to the point where the two merge creating 100%. I can then repeat the simulating with the use of decimals.

Formulating and testing hypothesis

Here there is the formulation of an answer which can be either formative or tentative.

For example, in this case, students can be asked to give answers that are seen to be tentative prior to carrying out a simulation say using the power point projector.

Interpreting data

This is essentially the process where the recognition of data patterns is enhanced or reinforced.

In this case, students can be given a pie chart with some representations and asked to interpret the representations while giving their own analysis. The representations in this case must be real life examples so as to assist their interpretation of the same.

Defining operationally

Here, terms are defined by way of carrying out measurements or carrying out a detailed observation of data.

This is one of the challenging processes as students in this case can be asked to convert percentages or whole integers into decimals. It is important to note that in this case, the students understanding of the issue of discussion is well enhanced and in cases where some issues seem to be unclear, clarifications can be made promptly.

Experimenting

This process is a little bit more practical and it may involve the use of a number of practical objects to explain the subject at hand i.e. in this case, decimals.

For instance, I can draw circles on the board and ask students to represent the same in decimal form. For instance, all I can shade two, three or more circles and ask the students to interpret the shaded circles as part f the whole in decimal form.

Constructing models

This process is very similar to the experimenting process above where object representations are made in such a way that the study process can be well enhanced.

For instance, in this case, students can be asked to come up with their own models and represent the same in decimal form. It is important to note that in the process of deriving their own models, the understanding of students as far as a given topic is concerned is also enhanced.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References

 Lee, O., & Buxton, C. (2008). Science Curriculum and Student Diversity: A Framework for Equitable Learning Opportunities. Elementary School Journal, 108 (3), 132-139

Pettig, K. L., (2000). On the road to differentiated. Education Leadership, 6, 4, 16-22.

Rezba, R. J., Sprague, C., & Fiel, R. (2002) Learning and assessing science process skills

(4th Ed). Kendall/Hunt Pub.


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