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Aztec Empire

Aztec empire (1427-1521) ruled Mesoamerica from Guatemala to Mexico and even to other territories like Honduras and Salvador for a period nearing one hundred years. The empire was inhabited by Nahuati- Speakers and the Pacific North West immigrants called the Culhua. They inhabited a region called Tenochitlan which is the modern day Mexico. These cultural people comprised of merchants, fishers, farmers and refined workers. In their religious practices they worshiped the sun and fiercely defended their territory from foreign attackers. The landing of Hernan Cortes in 1519 marked the down fall of this flouring community who were the sole heirs of the Aztec Empire.  The Spaniards actions led to the fall of the Aztec Empire because they first knew the weaknesses of the Aztec people as being very few and grouped together into a small community.  Aztec empire was brought down after more than 200, 000 troops attacked the empire (Bulliet, et al, 2009, pp 234)


 The reign of the Aztec had begun in 1427 led by Itzcoatl and assisted by city leaders. This is after they had defeated the Tepanecs marking the ownership of the Mexican basin. The leadership position was passed down from one brother to the other. The choosing of the leaders was done by people in the political power and religious leader based on ones capabilities and skills such as eloquence.


Safavid Empire

Safavid Empire (1502-1736) is considered as one of the powerful Iran dynasties. The Safavids ruled one of the   Persian empires since the Persia conquest by the Islamist and founded the School of Shar’a Islam. This is considered as a vital aspect in the History of Islam for it marked a turning point in the religion. The dynasty of Safavid originated in the Safawyyah founded in Ardabil city in the region of Azerbaijan in Iran. The Safavid Empire was the first   to develop a unified state of Iran after the fall of Sassanids.The establishment of the Islam School of Shara clearly differentiated Irans Sovereignty   from that of Ottoman   who the inhabitants were the Sunni Muslims.


The Safavid Empire  was  overthrown in 1722 by  the Afghan invaders. This made the Safavid Empire to become the shortest to be in power among the three Great Islamic empires. It is  however  best remembered for establishing the official religion in Persia as being the Shia Islam. It is also distinct from the Mughal and Ottoman Empire because it did not practices military beginning but religious but later developed political and military traits (Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 330)


Quetzalcoatl

Quetzalcoatl is a Mesoamerican deity who was named from Nahuatl language which means a fathered serpent. The Teotichuacans were the first to worship the deity in the late Pre classic age onwards to the Early Classic period (400 BCE- 600CE) of the chronology of  Mesoamerican. The feathered serpent was considered as  the legendary ruler, as a deity  and as a cultural hero as seen in most  legendary and enduring stories of the region. Quetzalcoatl represented  sexuality , health motion, laughter crafts and art of the civilization such as music, cooking and farming. He is believed to bring together the winds and the heavens which symbolize fertility of the earth. He is also believed to have a twin called Xolotl who had human body but with a dogs head  and has sports on his body like a wildcat. The  people who believed in this god were the Aztecs occupying the pantheon that they believed he was the god of vegetation and rain.


Indulgence

Indulgence is a term within the catholic theology which means a temporal punishment remission partially or fully because of the already forgiven sins. The Catholic Church gives a sinner   indulgence after he has confessed and been absorbed back to the congregation. Indulgence is believed to draw the House of Merit Treasure established through the superabundant and meritorious sacrifice made by Christ when he died for human sin on the cross and the saints penances and virtues. In the early church a sinner was given severe punishments. But this came to be replaced by indulgence. The indulgence also shortened the duration of the punishment given during prisoners intercession and those because of their faith were waiting for martyrdom. Martin Luther King highly contended against the abuses in granting and selling indulgences which made him to establish the reformation of the protestant(Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 306).


English Civil War

The English Civil War was a conflict from 1642 to 51. It is a war triggered by the disagreements between England King , Charles 1 and the parliamentarians who ware his  subjects. This resulted to the execution and defeat of the King. The civil war was characterized by a series of conflicts with the use of arm and  machines among the politicians . The  first civil war was from 1642 to 46 and the  second part of the civil war was between 1648- 49. The  main cause of the civil war was the  Reformation consequences and its aftermath among the middle classes needs and those of the army and commoners. The war put a test to the Kings  divine right theory and his prerogatives. It was therefore a war among the Royalists, the parliamentarians, the round heads, the Cavaliers and all the Englands regions sect.


Before the start of the war England was exercising a period of national disillusionment. This led to the creation of wider gap between the Protestants and the court. Many aspects  were coming to an end such as the need of literature and drama which were seen as the golden age,  the court religion the disusing of Cambridge and Oxford and the scientific ideas from these universities were not recognized  by the government. There was also severity of censorship and art was  being  consumed and patron by the lawyers. The literature which had been established and  maintained during the mid and the late 16th century  was now being taken as a major concern in theological and political aspects. These are what contributed to the start of the civil war following the economic, social, political, and religious disagreements and a battle between the  subjects and the king(Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 120).


Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Empire dominated central Europe for almost a millennium ruled by a Holy German emperor known as Otto I. His coronation marked the start of  the Holly Roman Empire  in 962 AD which lasted until the reunification of Francis II at Napoleon instigation in 1890. The  empire faced the  challenge of the squabbles of  papal secular over leadership. This led to the rising of nationalistic ambition  after the  13th century. The empire was made up of  Hapsburg dominance in Spain and Austria by the year 1273.


The holy Roman real extended from medieval age to the modern central and Western Europe.  Traditionally the empire we believed to have been formed by Charlemagne who  became the emperor in 800 after  being crowned by Pope Leo III. German Otto I rein lasted from 962-973. He managed to revive the Carolingian  title which was declining. The empire acted as a reflection of the claim by Charlemagne that his empire would succeeded the Roman Empire  especially because he was a God chosen leader. The empire consisted of countries like Moravia, Hungary, Poland Denmark and France.


Later Spain and Britain was incorporated into the empire. The empire also faced the challenge of emperors struggle for dominance with the papacy especially under the Hohenstaufen dynasty which also very powerful. Them together with the popes fought to control Italy. The emperors  power gradually weakened to the  princes who had the authority of choosing leaders. This happened in the rule of Habsburg leading to the loosening in territorial unity during the last centauries. The designation from the Holy Roman Empire by Germany flattered much the cohesion and its imperial lands during the 16th century(Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 130).


Encomienda

Encomienda is a legal system used by the Spanish who colonized America. The Spanish Crown made efforts to define its American colonies inhabited by the Indian population. Encomienda is a practice  where by tribute was exerted  from the Jews and Muslims during the conquest of  Spain Muslim. Despite the fact that the Encomienda being established to the force labor abuses which  commonly  practiced by the colonizer in their new discovered world,  it later became a practices which created enslavement. Encomienda in 1503 was defined as an aspect of entrusting  which is a crowns grant to an official, soldier or a conquistador of a  given  number of Indians found  in a particular geographical place. The encormendero is the grant receiver who had the ability of exercising tribute from the Indian people  in kind, gold or labor. The recommender was also supposed to help the Indians gain Christian faith and to protect them. The Encomienda did not  encourage land grant but practice how to control the land owned by the Indians  by a means of encomenderos. This system however failed to fulfill the promises and obligations made to the Indians.


The laws of Burgos (1512-13) were formed to ensure there is an end to the encomienda system and its abuses. Basically the main goal of the encomienda system was to ensure that the colonizers in minimizing economy would be able to meet their needs. The system lead to the replacement of agriculture for mining and many Indians were killed or chased away from the lands which favored mining. The hacienda system contributed to the weakening and fall of the encomienda because the hacienda system supported estate ownership. It was until the 18th century that the encomienda was abolished officially (Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 200)


Chartered companies

The shareholders and investors can form a Chartered companies meant for colonization, exploration and trade. In the past companies were developed to bring together a group of people with one common interest if taking ventures in exploring new markets and cheap raw materials. The earliest chartered companies were formed in the 16uth century  by  European  investors  who combined their capital with the aim of making profit  and  underwriting  from exploring into other countries. The European investors traveled to  India, Africa, and North America and in the carrying under  the charted  company  patron  by  a  specified  country.


The in the medieval  period, there also existed some charted companies  such as the Sohra Enso which was a copper mine charter. The advantages that the investors  benefited  from the charted companies are that they were able to use the private resources for trade and exploration beyond the treasurys limited resources. This in an indirect  rule through a liberal means. Some of the chartered companies employed indirect rule themselves within a given territory through the use of traditional leaders of Kingdoms whom they made treaties with. Usually the development of a chartered companies was mainly and the republic, royal or a governmental body which legitimized and incorporated it.


The charter by the government clearly indicated the trade term which the chartered companies would operate influences its borders and carry out certain responsibilities and rights. Some of these chartered companies include the British South Africa Company, British Honorable East India Company, English Royal African Company and the Dutch Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC). These companies p had monopoly in the enslavement of African, controlled territories and government ruler, used military forces, developed banks and singed treaties with African kings. The companies owned, granted and managed land and distributed them to the natives(Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 100).


.Atlantic Circuit (or System)

The Atlantic system was also known as the triangular slave trade between West Africa, Britain and West Indies. The Atlantic Circuit (or System) operated in the transferring of African slaves from the western and central region of Africa to the European traders. The African slaves were transported to the British colonies in India, South and North America.  The slaves were needed to work in the British colonies which were growing rice, coffee, tea, cotton and in cocoa plantations. The slaves were also meant to work as construction workers house keepers miners in silver and gold mines and in furniture workshops among other tasks.


The main shippers were the Portuguese, the French, the British, the Dutch and the Americas in the North region. Ships and fortresses were owned by the European and Americans contained the slaves who had been captured through kidnapping and raiding. Apart from slaves other goods being traded were agricultural raw materials, manufactured goods cotton, rum, tobacco, molasses and sugar. This trade came to an end after being banned in 1807(Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 140)


Plantocracy

Plantocracy is a term referring to the ruling class a government or a political order which I composed by plantation owners. Another term for such as ruling body is slavocracy. Many European colonies were formed as plantocracies which were dominated by a group of settlers.  They were the main decisive force in movements of anti abolitionists.


Conquistadors

The conquistador in Portuguese and Spanish language means conqueror. These are the   Spanish comprised of adventures, soldiers and explore who came to America and dominated most of the regions. This was during the 15th and 19th centuries.


Fraticide

The Fraticide is a Latin word meaning the act of a person killing his own brother.  this is a type of murder committed by man who is sinful according to the  teachings of the Bible and the Quran.


Mercantilism

Mercantilism is a theory in economics which postulates that a states prosperity greatly depends on its capital supply which is unchangeable in the international trade volume.  the trade should be one pay benefits more than the other. For example the global economies and the European are seen as games of zero sums which are unchangeable especially seen in the period of the mercantilist. The economic assets of the European  countries were only represented in terms of trade value, silver and gold(Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 109).


 

Purdah

The term purdah means curtain in literal terms. It is a practice of concealing women from men. Purdah is therefore like a curtain helps in  bring out  a  physical separation among the different sexes. Purdah is used in the Islamic and Hindu world  which requires women to cover themselves(Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 202).


Caliph

The Caliph is an Arabic term meaning the head of state. The head of state is known as a caliphate and in the Islamic community the leader has the title of Ummah. The term Khalifah is the representative and the successor.


Constantinople

Constantinople was the Roman Empire imperial capital. It was one of the wealthiest and largest cities in Europe. The name of the city was later dropped in 1930 by the Turkish and preferred using the term Istanbul.


Section B

Maritime exploration the influence of the West

Traveling over the worlds seas and ocean was made possible through the innovation of powerful ships which could withstand heavy winds. The ships had well perfected techniques of navigation which were essential while sailing on an open sea. Sea traveling highly became profitable expenditures despite the dangerous involved and its complexity.  People and goods could be moved by the ships over a long distance. New lands and  markets  were discovered and many settled in  far off continents. The mariners settled at the lands found  near  the  Indian  ocean, the pacific and the Atlantic.Through the maritime exploration the western countries were able to broaden and deepen their contacts maritime exploration the influence of the West with other countries.


Ferdinand  Magellan was the first  European to sail East ward  of  the Indian ocean and to  Africas southern tip. He was a Portuguese member who also explored the west Indies.  This expedition came to an end in mid 1515 after accomplishing the goal after sailing across the Atlantic Ocean to crossing the Pacific Ocean passing across the South America tip. During this period also Spain had sent three ships in 1219 to sail through the large area of the Pacific(Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 190).


The sailors faced challenges such as starvation, sea sickness, attacks and diseases. The Victoria Group managed to return back to Spain with the report gathered from its expedition across the Indian Ocean. This was in September 8th 1522. This expedition became highly fruitful because new routes to Brazil and Africa had been discovered through the Atlantic region. Another expedition was sent by Spain in 1492 to American Continents. The voyeurs had to cover 2, 3300 miles before they finally reached Americas main land. At this region the Spanish people settled and planted sweet potato. Other settlers went to New Zealand and last away. The reconnaissance voyages among the Polynesian have been studies through Linguistic similarity and evidence of DNA in the areas of Eastern Pacific and its islands where they settled.


By 1450 many maritime expedition were happening in many regions around the globe. The earlier sponsored expedition sponsored by the Portugal and Spain government highly triggered the interest of other European countries. The two European countries had greatly benefited  from the contact with the metrics the Portugals Iberian Kingdoms were highly influential with there political ,religious and economic motives which greatly influences to their new world.

The maritime expansion was also beneficial in improving both the military and maritime technologies. This is because the Iberians were able to master the tricks of surviving in new and treacherous environments in the ocean, conquer the foreign lands and control and seize the maritime trade routes which existed at the time.


The European countries Spain and Portugal were driven with the motivation of exploring the new lands.  They were adventurous, ambitious and curious to know what was happening outside their world. Through the government sponsored voyages, there was the revival of both trades and urban life a closure alliance between the European rulers and merchant and growing intellectual community. The European sailors had to fight with  the  Islamic  powers  who had dominated the Mediterranean region who halos had the interest to trade. Spain and Portugal benefited from the economic resources found  through trades and dominance in the  conquered colonies(Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 204).


The Polynesians exploration led to the opening of democratic expertise and power projects. the European countries between the1450 and 1550 greatly influenced various commercial  links and cultural regions which served as ambitions for leaders in politics. the European like the British, Portuguese and the Dutch conquered and rules various regions of  the new world s they had discovered. They established government through both direct and indirect rule. The expedition also lead to social and control influence in terms of code of dressing, religion, mannerism and education into the newly conquered lands. The Indian Ocean for example had a mature trade market leading to the Europeans  harvesting heavily making large profits. The settlers in the Americas were able to  produce large scale agricultural products which  they exported back home. Enormous wealth such as silver, sugar and gold was founded  by the Portuguese and Spanish  people in America. They contributed to development of posts and roads and a new form of labor, slavery.


Renaissance and Reformation

The reformation happened mainly from the theological controversies within the Latin Church. These controversies led to the breaking down  of the churchs religious unity. The war within the church was  on popular beliefs verses the traditional folklore. The then educated Europeans had mainly been influenced  the antiquities of  the Greco-Romans but their ideas and practices were challenged by the bold thinkers. These new thinkers knew that they were meant to challenge the traditional political and social items because within the new ideas they aimed to bring about new ideas after 1750. The reformation was mainly facilitated by the development of communication technologies and the printing press.


The protestant rejected the popes authority and criticized the Catholic Church for its indulgences. Luther called for the need to check or morality rather than the deeds to other human beings. The two groups also fought over the salivation doctrine which the Protestants were in support of (Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 300).


The renaissances are a period in world history which saw the flourish of art and the prosperity f the classics. One of the  major technological advances during this period is the development of  printing press. The Protestants used this technology to spread their views and influence masses on what they thought the churched should be governed.


Education also flourished during the renaissance through encouraging the community to study various classical tests which would help people gain knowledge and acquire new ways of viewing the world around them and themselves. There is a close relationship between the protestant Reformation and the Renaissance. The Renaissance period was in support of  the flow of new ideas through the use of printing press. The people began to question their Catholic Church faith leading to the protestant reformation. The Renaissance called for the need of individual belief due to human capability to know what is right or wrong. Salvation according to the catholic church was only to be found within it but Martin Luther said that it was only through faith that the human should would be saved. This was supported by the Renaissance because it is a new idea away from the traditional thinking.


Response of the Catholic Church to the revolution

Martin Luther was against the aspects of salvation which could only be found in the church and through good deeds as supported by the Catholic Church. He instead insisted that it was only through ones faith. Another doctrine Luther was against is  the selling of indulgence as practices d by the catholic church. He also accused the church for its corrupt deeds as well as rejecting the medieval thinking on the male dominance. The  Catholic Church responded by summoning Luther and  reading him the catholic doctrines which were in line with the biblical teachings(Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 240).


The political situations in early modern England and France

The French and England monarchs during the 17th century got into intense conflict with either powerful rivals. The England power under King Charles I was the supreme power in all decisions making. He did not involve the parliamentarians who were the representatives of his kingdom for example raising funds without consulting his subjects for tax improvement. This made him to be criticized by his subjects but he ended up arresting them. Puritan General Oliver Cromwell arrested the king and took over leadership. The bill of rights was passed to check  future leaders from not summoning the parliamentarians. The bill clearly indicated the qualities needed in a king such as integrity, charity uprightness, clarity, humanity and piety.


In France the estate general was in place of the parliament seen in England. The Estates general represent the clergys traditional right,  the bourgeoisie/ towns and the nobility. The Estates General came into power in the 16th century during the French wars of Religion. Unlike the England parliament the estates general was keen on avoiding financial crisis through consulting among the monarch. The France tax collection system was more efficient through selling of appoints to those in high offices within the government. Unlike the English parliament the estates general believe that the monarch had absolute authority to rule because it was god ordained (Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 301)


Atlantic World

The Columbian Exchange was the exchange of animals, plants, technologies and disease between Americas and other regions of the world through the Columbus voyages.  the American  hemisphere experienced great changes from the transfer of technologies . this improved the practice of agriculture and livestock domestication. This led t the improvement of staple crops.


The Colombian exchange also meant the spread of disease.  This was spread by the European immigrants into the Americas. Also the African slaves spread the old world diseases to the Americas this affected the population density in the Americas due to people dieing from epidemics. Many died from small pox, malaria, yellow fever.


The  Columbian exchange also  involved the transfer of  animal and plants. these new  organism improved the lifestyle and diet  in both the Old worlds and New. The Southern European agriculture was brought by the settlers with crops such as grapes, olives, vegetables, wheat and olives. The colonized people also introduced   Asian and American crops like coconuts, bananas, sugar, and bread fruit (Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 340)


European, American, and African participation in the Atlantic slave trade

The Spaniards were the first to visits the Columbus. They settled   and grew in number leading to them occupying most of the Brazilian borders towards the end of the 16th century. The Portuguese were also the early settlers created colonial societies.  They  assumed the responsibility of converting the natives into ways of Christianity . The    Spanish America had mining centers in Peru and Mexico which had greater economic influence within the globe. These mines greatly influenced population growth and growth of urban centers as well as roads which linked with other textile and agricultural producers. The Brazil Sugar plantations led to the exchange of tobacco and sugar and slave reexportation to Paraguayan region, silver, livestock, and hide to other colonies belonging to the Spaniards.


The Africans were the slaves who provided labor   in plantation based in the Americas and Asian colonies. They were concentrated in the Caribbean and Brazil plantation regions. They introduced religious believes, new agricultural practices, cuisine and social norms to the new colonial societies they were in. The increasing of the Portugal economy opened doors to other British colonies. France and England also joined the other European countries in the trade. They greatly impacted on the lives of Africans and Amerindians by subjecting them and forcing them into slavery. Each of the empires in the new world had districts instructional and cultural heritage(Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 314).


The interactions between the rulers of the Ottoman Empire and non-Muslims within the empire

The 17th and 18th century saw the fall of the Ottoman empire as well as the other non Muslim empires of the Mughal and Saviod in a simultaneous way… this is mainly because of lack of  modern technologies which  had already   been developed buy European countries especially in military technology. There was a poor relationship between Ottoman empire and other non Muslims societies, they captured and enslaved them. The armies from Ottoman empire concentrated on  the  Balkar and  Greece  Christian enemies


Mughal Empire was dedicated to the spread of Islam to the southern region of the Mediterranean Sea. This made many European s and  south Asians to fear the Mughal empire. Unlike the Ottoman empire however, the Mughal empire did not use force in spreading Islam. They were instead friendlier to non Muslims.


The Ottoman Empire power

The reign of Suleiman of Ottoman Empire became highly significant and powerful in 1520-1466. it was the best organized state  in the Islamic world and in Europe. It had a military force formed by Calvary archers and also captured slaves to work military personnel. It also had a well equipped navy gallery manned by Tunisian, Algerian and Turkish soldiers. Through the powerful illiteracy force, the empire was able to conquer new territories (Bulliet,et al, 2009, pp 340)


Reference

Bulliet, R, Crossley P, Headrick D, Hirsch S and Johnston L (2008)the Earth and Its Peoples, Volume I: A Global History, Publisher Cengage Learning,

 

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