Organizational Theory

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According to the modern organizational theories, organizations can be defined as technical systems comprising of technological aspects, human aspects as well as the sociology-technological aspects. The novel forms of human organizations emerged as a result of the rise in division of labor as well as specialization. The initial emergence of decision-making process occurred as a result of creation of novel decision-makers who worked to earn rather than working for equity reasons. Industrial revolution also contributed to the emergence of a new category of decision-makers (Lester and Parnell, 2006).

The classical form of organization theory emerged was witnessed between the period of 1815 to the year 1915. The key question that the classic theory intended to address was how jobs could be carried out in a more effective manner. It was mainly based on the principles governing scientific leadership. Hence, the key objective of the classical organization theory was to promote the effectiveness of the management team within organizations (Lester, 2006).

Concerns were raised regarding the motivation and mingling of individuals within an organization. The principles of management that emerged within the period of classical theory were not adequate in handling various managerial issues as well as accounting for individual behavior. Hence, the contingent organizational theory emerged due to the need to address the behavioral issues and concerns. Contingency theory was based on learning the different individuals behaviors within organizations or simply organizational behavior. This theory provided a basis for solving conflicts within organizations since different individual behaviors were accounted for (Lester, 2006).

The other change was the introduction of human relations field of management whose objective was to meet the human needs within an organization. It was later discovered that motivation was the key to improving employees performance and organizational productivity. From the beginning of the twentieth century, various management theories have come about and these include scientific management, classical management, behavioral management as well as management of the human relations field. The study of these theories improves knowledge and understanding of various public organizations since it promotes an understanding of individual behavior as well ways of solving conflicts that may arise (Lester, 2006).

Just same way as individual interactions present microcosm of organizational interactions, an organization is also a microcosm of the state. Organizations are made up of groups, which constitute the organizational basic structure. Several organizations and companies categorize workers into various types of temporary and fixed groups. These groups can either perform excellently or poorly and the society may regard their performance as wither destructive or beneficial. It is also evident that organizational performance determines the societal as well as the country or states performance. It can therefore be presumed that an organization is part of the state. This implies that there are so many organizations present within a single state.

An organization on the other hand comprise of various individuals who form the workforce as well as the managerial team. The workforce comprises of the human capital or employees that contribute to organizational performance and productivity. Interactions of employees or several individuals within an organization are true representation of organizational interaction. Hence, an organization that has individuals that are interactive can be termed as an interactive organization. Individuals that are present within an organization determine the productivity and performance of that organization. Hence, hardworking and productive individuals achieve high organizational performance and productivity.

According to Max Weber, a way through which inequality is maintained and developed comprises a form of traditional authority. He further argued that a leader dominates in cases where his or her authority is not challenged or questioned. He partially held the view that traditional forms of authority prevent the emergence of the legal authority forms. Weber further postulates of charismatic authority which arises when controlling others is done on the basis of personal traits and the established guidelines or rules. People obey charismatic leaders due to the fact that they have a strong link or connection to them (Parkin, 2002).

Weber further argues that the creative and driving force that arises from traditional authority is referred to as charisma. Revolution is the key aspect associated with charismatic authority. Generation of power can be executed by the individuals surrounding charismatic leaders. Initiation of change is the key aspect that is associated with charismatic leaders whereby most charismatic leaders lead to innovation or accomplishment of organizational change (Parkin, 2002).

Weber defines power as the capability to impose a will on another individual without considering the individuals desires and wishes. He therefore postulates that power is relational whereby one individual has to dominate over the other person. The three ways through which a person can exercise authority are through punishment and reward, physical power and influence of opinion. Authority on the other hand is has been defined by Weber as the quality that promotes or enhances power and not a form of power. An individual who has authority has the expertise as well as the capability of effectively communicating or interacting with other people (Parkin, 2002).

In an organization, the workers are more important compared to the system. Workers in an organization should not be viewed as a commodity but rather human capital. Workers make a great contribution to an organizational growth, development and performance. Industrious and hard working workers promote an organizations growth, development and productivity. It is however important to create a conducive working environment for the workers in order to promote organizational growth.

Motivation is the basic tool for promoting organizational growth and performance. It is essential to constantly motivate workers so that they can have the spirit and desire to perform. Good salaries and good working conditions are one form of motivating workers. Performance evaluation and appraisal is the other way through which an organization can develop. Workers should be educated and informed of the various targets, goals and objectives that are set. If possible rewards should be given to those workers who perform well as this will act as a motivation tool. It is therefore recommendable for workers to be treated fairly and not just like mere commodities. They should be viewed as important company resources. Without motivated workers, an organization can never be effective regardless of the types of technological systems and many other organizational systems that are present (Lester, 2006).


Lester, D., & Parnell, J. A. (2006). Organizational Theory. A strategic perspective

Parkin, F. (2002). Max Weber. Routledge

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