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1.      To enhance the students understanding of citizenship

2.      To ensure that students can be able to describe citizenship as a term and what it entails.

3.      To ensure that students understand the various types of citizenship i.e. honorary citizenship.

4.      To ensure that students understand the benefits that come with citizenship and

what is expected of them as citizens.

Specific strategies I would use to present the lesson.

According to, Moore (2005), having a prior knowledge of the instructional strategies to be used goes a long way to enhance the students understanding do the concept at hand. With that in mind, below I resent some of the strategies I would utilize to present the lessons.

Experimental learning

By using this instructional strategy, I shall avail opportunities for experiences (real world) based on the prior knowledge of students. According to Marzano & Pickering (2001), through experimental learning, a student can enhance his or her skills in ways that are largely practical. This is essentially because it is possible for students to inflate their knowledge and apply what they may already be aware of.

Here, I shall enhance their understanding of the concept at hand by organizing field trips and using simple class simulations.

Social learning

This according to Gregory (2003) is one of the best learning strategies as far as student interaction is concerned. Learning enhanced by a high level of student interaction has been demonstrated to yield better capabilities as far as retention of facts is concerned.

Here, the ability to retain information on the part of students shall be enhanced b way of social interaction. With that in mind, I shall use this strategy for purposes of enhancing social interactions as far as the learning process is concerned.

Thematic instruction

When it comes to thematic instruction, instructors come up with a central theme cross curricular learning. The rationale of this instructional strategy is that it allows students to develop connections that are coherent as far as several disciplines are concerned. This infiltrates the students integrated knowledge base acquisition.

Non-graded, multi-age

His strategy is founded not on the grade level of the student but rather on the individual learning process of the student. The rationale of this strategy is founded on the premise that the mental age of students and their chronological age do not match at all times. The advantage that shall accrue by utilizing this strategy is based on thye fact that students shall come up or develop social skills, tolerance for their counterparts, enhanced responsibility as well as self dedication.

Constructive instruction

According to Gregory & Chapman (2007), this instructional strategy is founded on the cognition study. Hence by utilizing this strategy, I shall be able enhance the learning of students by extending the students prior knowledge on the concept under discussion. The rationale of this learning strategy is founded on the premise that learning is affected by a number of things including the attitudes and beliefs of students as well as the context in which the teaching of an idea takes place.

The learning cycle: a discussion of the phases

Roberts & Kellough (2004) notes that adapting instruction to help students is the only way to create meaningful learning. The main points to be aware of here includes seeking to understand the prior knowledge of students, enhancing the learning environment so that cooperation can be stimulated and lastly coming up with a comparison between prior knowledge and the new ideas. Here, I shall discuss the various phases of the learning cycle most specifically concerning myself with prior knowledge, input as well as independent practice.

Prior knowledge

This phase is embedded with a number of goals or purpose. To begin with, it enhances the attention of students to the topic. This is specifically by having students know where they are headed and helping them to come up with crucial connections. Secondly, this phase acts as a student’s prior knowledge pre-assessment and enhances the students understanding of the objectives of the lesson. It is however important to note that the jewel in the phase’s jewel comes in its ability to remind learner what they already know and derive the necessary connections that will help them apply the same to the concept being looked into.

When it comes to the evaluation of engagement, I would use the phase to set about understanding the ideas learners already have with regard to the concept under discussion, that is, citizenship and what it entails. This I can do by floating questions to which learners can respond to.

Input phase

This phase shall mainly be informed by the discussion of the concept at hand. The students I this case are introduced of the component and what it entails as well as what is expected of them.  In his phase, the input of students can also be welcome but the main focus should be on ensuring that students understand all the new concepts and can be able to invoke them in their day to day engagements and apply the knowledge learnt in practical situations. It is at this stage that students should learn of the importance of the concept. It is important to note that in this phase, I can utilize pictures, video, tape, film as wall as the lectures to avail the information needed for the students to have a thorough understanding of the concept at hand.

Independent practice

After it is apparent that learners have understood the content required of them, availing reinforcement practice would be the next priority. This could be through taking deliberate steps o ensure that students do not forget what has been discussed. The deliberate steps in this case could include but are not limited to advancing to students individual texts for assignment purposes within the class setting or preparing homework exercises. Here, the premise is that the independent phase shall go a long way to ensure that students can be able to apply the knowledge gleaned from class readings in different scenarios. Roberts & Kellough (2004) is of the opinion that many learners fail to apply concepts leant in class in real life situations chiefly because of failure to undertake decontextualiztion.

Handling class room management involved

When it comes to the handling of classroom management involved, it should be noted that the relevance of cooperative groups, computer lab as well as independent research cannot be overstated. To begin with, when it comes to cooperative groups, Roberts & Kellough (2004) is of the opinion that students accomplish more when working with peers. This is perhaps because of the interdependence nature of cooperative groups. It therefore goes without saying that the effective management of the same can be a timely boost for the learning processes. For the effective management of these groups, enhanced coordination and constant monitoring would come in handy. This would ensure that such groups accomplish what they set about to accomplish and incase there exists any kind of deviations from what was agreed on, corrective measures can always be taken in a timely manner.

When it comes to the effective management of computer lab work, constant monitoring and supervisions of the essence. Research shows that when not under constant supervision, students tend to deviate from the issue at hand and in he regard, fail to undertake what they have been tasked to undertake instead choosing to explore other options. This can however be minimized through constant supervision to ensure that learners stick to what should be worked on at a specific time. Next, independent research calls for guidance as well as supervision for purposes of effective management. This could be through ensuring that students use the correct mechanisms and parameters to carry out the independent research in addition to adhering to the relevant steps and procedures when engaging in the same. In conclusion, it can be noted that effective classroom management especially in the areas discussed above i.e. cooperative groups, computer lab work as well as independent research calls for collaboration from both ends, that is, from the instructor and the learner.


Moore, K.D. (2005). Effective instructional strategies: from theory to practice. SAGE

Marzano, R.J. & Pickering, D. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. ASCD

Gregory, G. (2003). Differentiated instructional strategies in practice: training, implementation, and supervision. Corwin Press

Gregory G., & Chapman, C. (2007). Differentiated instructional strategies: one size doesn’t fit all. Corwin Press

Roberts, P. & Kellough, R.D. (2004). A guide for developing interdisciplinary thematic units. Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall


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