Gamma delta T cells
46. Types of T-cell – Helper, Cytotoxic, Memory, Regulatory, and Mucosal associated invariant, Gamma delta T cells
The T cell receptor signaling activates the T-cells. The first signal is antigen specific and results from the interaction of the T-cell receptors with the peptide-MHC molecules on the membrane of the antigen presenting cells. The second signal involves the co-stimulation whereby, the products of the pathogens induce the surface receptors on the APC. Later, there is a transmission of these signals to the nucleus for the appropriate action.
47. Cell proliferation is the rise in the number of cells due to cell growth and division. Cell proliferation leads to rapid division of white blood cell during pathogenic invasion leading to high production of antibodies
48. Lymphocytes produce the antibodies. After the stimulation of the B-cells by T- cells, the B-cells undergo multiple divisions, enlarge and differentiate to form a clone of antibody-producing plasma cells.
49. The extensive polymorphisms in genes MHC –encoding molecules enhance immune defense by widening of the array of antigenic peptides that are available for T cell recognition.
50. Co-stimulation is a stage in T-cell activation whereby a signal is derived through the induction of the surface receptors on the APC by the products of the pathogens. Co-stimulation together with the T- cell receptor signal activates the T-cells thus initiating the immune response.
51. Differentiation is the specialization of the body cells that involves expression and depression of cells in preparation to assume specific functions. Differentiation leads to the production of the different body cell.
52. Secondary lymph organs monitor the contents of the extracellular fluids and filter these fluids as well acting as the sites where activation of lymphocytes takes place. The primary lymph organs are responsible for the production of the lymphocytes, and this is the site where they mature.
53. B-cell activation can either be T-cell dependent or T-cell independent. In the T-cell dependent, after the stimulation of the T-cells due the recognition of a presented peptide, they produce autocrine that lead to the formation of effector or memory T-cells. The resulting effector T-cells activates specific B cells in an immunological synapse. These B cells produce antibodies against the antigens. In the T cell-independent manner, activation occurs when the B cells binds to an antigen and gets secondary activation by TLRs. B cells activated this way recognizes IgM antibodies specific to the TLR-binding antigens.
54. Granulocytes contain enzymes that digest microorganism.
Monocytes help other white blood cells to identify the pathogens that invade the body.
Dendritic cells present the antigens to other white blood cells for destruction.
T&B lymphocytes recognize pathogenic invasions and direct the immune system to take the necessary action.
55. Monocytes are the first immune cells to get at the site of invasion, and they help other immune cells to identify the pathogen while the macrophages digest and destroy the invading pathogen.
56. The generation of B cells takes place in the bone marrow and the liver in the fetus while that of T cells takes place in the thyroid. Lymphopoiesis is the process of lymphocyte production. The lymphocytes arise from specific types of stem cells. These cells undergo cell division and specialization leading to the production of the lymphocytes.
57. Primary lymph nodes are sites for lymphocytes production while the secondary lymph nodes are sites where the activation of the lymphocytes takes place.
58. Cluster of differentiation consists of a subset of cellular surface receptors also known as epitopes recognizable by antibodies.
59. MHC, which is a short form of major histocompatibility complex, is a cluster of genes on chromosome 6 in humans and encodes for glycoproteins of highly variable forms expressed on all cell surfaces. It distinguishes individual cells from others.
60. All nucleated cells have MHC I while only professional presenting cells contain MHC II. MHC I sends a signal the cell is under attack through the activation of T cells while the MHC II results to the proliferation of the B cells that are antigen specific.
61. MHC influenced by; the arrangement of the MHC, the location of specific genes on the MHC and whether the MHC is beta or alpha in nature.
62. The B cell immune pathway is important to the body as it helps the body to fight any pathogenic invasion. Similarly, this pathway creates a memory of the invasion and makes the body ready to fight a similar attack in the future. The T cell pathway, on the other hand, is important the immune system it recognizes and it provides the first line of action in the body defense against infections.
63. The primary nymph organs are responsible for the formation and storage of lymphocytes that, on the other hand, produces antibodies in case of a pathogenic attack. The secondary lymph organs are sites where the activation of lymphocytes takes place leading to the production of antibodies.
64. B-cell activation can either be T-cell dependent or T-cell independent. In the T-cell dependent, after the stimulation of the T-cells due the recognition of a presented peptide, they produce autocrine that lead to the formation of effector or memory T-cells. The resulting effector T-cells activates specific B cells in an immunological synapse. These B cells produce antibodies against the antigens. In the T cell-independent manner, activation occurs when the B cells binds to an antigen and gets secondary activation by TLRs. B cells activated this way recognizes IgM antibodies specific to the TLR-binding antigens.
65. TCR – they are molecules found on the surface of T cells and recognize the antigens bound to the MHC.
CD3 – is a protein complex found in t lymphocytes. They function as the T cell co-receptor
CD4 – is glycoprotein found in T helper cells, monocytes and macrophages and they send signals to other immune cells.
CD8 – they are a trans-membrane glycoprotein that acts as a co-receptor for TCR but are specific for MHC I.
66. APA are accessory cells that present foreign antigens complexes with the MHCs. They present the invading antigens with the MHCs.
67. Both CD4 and CD8 play a role in the recognition and activation. However, CD4 binds to MHC II while CD8 binds to MHC I. Both the CD4 and CD8 augment antigen-induced IL-2 production. They bind on the same MHC as the TCR increasing the potential of IL-2 production.
68. Cell proliferation is the rise in the number of cells due to cell growth and division. Cell proliferation leads to rapid division of white blood cells during pathogenic invasion leading to high production of antibodies
69. Antibodies act as markers fro antigens; cause antigen agglutination; activates the classical complement pathway, and they bind to antigens thus preventing them from entering the body.
70. T helper cells can be either Th 1 or Th 2. The difference between these cells is the type of cytokines they produce. Th1 produces cytokines that stimulate phagocytosis leading to destruction of microbial pathogens and may lead to organ autoimmune diseases while Th2 produces cytokines that stimulate the formation of antibodies directed toward big extracellular parasites. Th2 causes systemic autoimmune diseases. The Th17 pathway produces pro-inflammatory cytokines like the TFN –beta that has found use in therapeutic approach in people with autoimmune diseases.
71. Cytokines are a wide variety of small proteins secreted by cells and play an important role in the cell signaling. They include interleukins, lymphokines, and interferons.
72. The three complement pathways are the classical pathway, alternative, and the lectin pathways. C1-complex that is made up of C1q 2 C1r and 2 C1s triggers the classical pathway. The alternative pathway has a continuous activation as a result of impulsive C3 hydrolysis during the lectin pathway analogous to the classical pathway but with opsonin, MBL and ficolins rather than C1q.
73. The functions of complement are; opsonization, chemotaxis, cell lysis, and agglutination. Opsonization enhances phagocytosis while chemotaxis attracts macrophages and neutrophils. Cell lysis leads to the rupturing of foreign cells while agglutination sticks the pathogens together.
74. C3 plays a crucial role in the activation of the complement pathways. C3 activation is crucial in both the alternative and classical pathways.
75. The products of the complement activation such as the production of opsonin helps to mark the invading pathogens, thus making it easy for the other macrophages to engulf and digest these antigens.
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