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Managerial occupations are the jobs where an individual’s role is to accomplish things through other people’s work instead of doing the work by themselves. In order to qualify for a managerial occupation, an individual should show that they have the ability of managing people (Sullivan & Hodson 2011). Also, one must show they have a mastery of tasks done by a group they are managing. A professional occupation is one where an individual takes on the professional mannerism and also the roles of a given position. It is a position that one gets into and plans to hold the position for years. The professional occupation signifies that an individual has the potential for upward mobility with their experience. A service occupation is a job involving providing a service to a company or a person instead of producing a product (Sullivan & Hodson 2011).

The service occupation normally includes providing some service for people. The most favorable aspect of managerial, professional, and service occupations is that individuals get the chance of gaining their pay and also recognition with greater success. A favorable aspect of professional occupation is that it normally requires certification that tends to gain an individual membership to a small number of people where you have permission to practice in a certain area of work. A professional can lose their status through gross misconduct; but not merely for being underperforming. The negative aspect of the service occupation is that the proportions of temporary workers tend to be higher. Employers of service jobs should ensure that they improve their employment performance through implementing a range of policies designed to stimulate employment. Organizations should work towards improving the working conditions of employees so as to help improve the quality of work.


Sullivan, T & Hodson, R (2011). The social organization of work Cengage Learning

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Childhood Disintegrative Disorder 1

The birth of a child brings immeasurable joy to its parents and the extended family. The newborn is an addition to the family thus the proof that the family lineage continues. Parents anticipate the birth of a normal and healthy child and it is often a relief when a parent gives birth to a healthy child. A healthy child is an indicator that the child will grow up normally and achieve the growth milestones at the right time. Nothing prepares parents for a situation where a healthy child begins to lose his or her abilities and functioning. The onset of childhood disintegrative disorder shocks parents to the core. A child who was developing at a normal pace begins to lose his motor and verbal abilities. The child begins to regress, in the development rather than overcome additional milestones as he grows. Parents may begin to question why their child is changing and whether they played a role in the occurrence of the changes. Parents with children diagnosed with childhood disintegrative disorder need to understand the condition of their child and establish an effective management plan that ensures the child leads a comfortable life.

Childhood disintegrative disorder (Heller’s syndrome) is a condition that manifests itself when the child turns 2 years old. Heller’s syndrome belongs to the broad, pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) along with autistic disorders. Heller’s syndrome remains poorly understood and rare as it affects one patient in every 300 patients diagnosed with autistic disorder. The condition remains hidden for the first years of the child’s life after which the child begins to demonstrate severe loss of communication, social and motor skills. Parents may not realize their child has Heeler’s syndrome as the child grow up as a healthy and normal child. In the first two years, the child demonstrates age-appropriate verbal and non-verbal communication. The child also demonstrates appropriate social relationship. The child may, for instance, recognize and appreciate his parents and close relatives. The child may also show responsiveness to hugs and being carried around. The child also learns how to play and demonstrate adaptive behavior. The manifestation of the age-appropriate behaviors gives parents the impression that their child is healthy and growing up without any complications. Unfortunately, a child with Heller’s syndrome demonstrates significant loss of the acquired skills. The loss of skills manifests itself between 2-10 years. The child begins to show loss in language, social skills, bladder control and motor skills (Zwaigenbaum et al. 122). A healthy two-year-old child can engage in slight conversation with those around him. Unfortunately, a child with Heller’s syndrome demonstrates significant language loss and thus unable to initiate or sustain a conversation. The deterioration of language and motor skills progresses as the child advances in age. Parents are likely to note that their once active child becomes withdrawn as he loses interest in his parents and siblings. The child also loses his receptive skills to the extent that he does not respond to his own name. The child also becomes disinterested in toys as well as mobile activities such as crawling, climbing or wandering (Zwaigenbaum et al. 123).

The main cause of Heller’s syndrome remains unknown. However, scientists believe that the condition arises from the neurobiology of the brain Children diagnosed with Heller’s syndrome demonstrate abnormal electro cephalogram (ECG). ECGs measures electric activities in the brain as created by brain waves. An abnormality of the electrical waves is an indicator that the condition interferes with normal brain functioning. Children diagnosed with Heller’s syndrome may also have seizures; an indicator of the involvement of the brain (Charan, 55). Additionally, Heller’s syndrome is synonymous with neurological and metabolic conditions such as nurolipidosis and tuberous sclerosis. The association of Heller’s syndrome with brain activity calls for in-depth investigations into the neurological activity of children suffering from Heller’s syndrome. Some researchers associate the progression of Heller’s syndrome with vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 is essential for the manufacture of S-adenosylmethionine that is responsible for the metabolism of neurotransmitters, proteins, phospholipids and nucleic acid (Malhotra, 2209). Vitamin B12 deficiency thus reduces the synthesis of neurotransmitters resulting in cognitive decline, depression, and sometimes psychosis. Children raised as vegetarians are likely to demonstrate increased severity of Heller’s syndrome because of the high risk of lack of vitamin B12.

The diagnosis of Heller’s syndrome occurs when parent visits a pediatrician with concerns for regressive growth. The pediatrician must conduct a thorough medical examination to eliminate any other potential causes of the patient’s symptoms. The diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorder (DSM-IV) provides healthcare providers with an outline for the diagnosis of Heller’s syndrome. The initial diagnosis lies in the determination of a rapid decline in a child’s basic skills. The child records a normal and stable rate of growth in the first five years. Unfortunately, after two years, the child begins to demonstrate a significant decline in receptive language, adaptive behavior, bladder control, play and motor skills. A pediatrician must gather adequate historical background about the child prior to making a diagnosis. The pediatrician should ensure that he evaluates the child’s growth process since birth. An analysis of the growth process enables the pediatrician to rule out other medical conditions. Heller’s syndrome closely relates to other autistic disorders thus the likelihood to misdiagnose. Pediatricians must conduct an elaborate evaluation and ensure they make a proper Heller’s syndrome diagnosis.

Treatment for Heller’s syndrome requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective management. Patients who demonstrate seizures as a symptom can receive anticonvulsant medication. Additionally, patients can receive atypical antipsychotics if he or she is hyperactive, aggressive or engages in activities that result in injuries (Valinia, 3). Heller’s syndrome patients demonstrate a variety of symptoms thus the need to manage each symptom on its own. The patient may begin with a medication such as Olanzipine for the treatment of enuresis. The healthcare provider then changes the medication to an alternative form of the management of another set of symptoms. Patients can also receive therapies to enhance their abilities and skills. Pediatricians can, for instance, work with the parents in the execution of applied behavioral analysis. The Pediatrician will work with the patient with the intention of training the patient to adopt a particular suitable behavior. Children who have Heller’s syndrome struggle with impaired cognitive abilities. The application of applied behavioral analysis enables the child to be put through appropriate repetitive actions. With time, the child may understand the action and apply it to his daily life skills. Pediatricians can also expose patients to speech and language services. Heller’s syndrome patients experience 100% loss of speech thus the need for speech and language therapies. Patients may require training from the start i.e. sound formations as well as the combination of sounds to make works.

Parents, can, for instance, sing a popular child’s song that the child already knew prior to the diseases. The constant repetition of the song coupled with the persistence of participation can motivate the child to learn the song. It is by learning the song that the child re-acquires part of his language. Pediatricians can also adopt the picture exchange system as a strategy for enhancing speech and language development in children with Heller’s syndrome. The picture exchange communication system is a manual program for teaching children struggling with Heller’s syndrome. The system is commonly used for nonverbal children who are struggling with autism spectrum disorders (Flippin and Watson, 178). The system would be effective in shaping a child’s language and communication ability because pediatricians apply them in four phases. The first phase is the simplest and involves activities such as holding out a picture and probing the child to recall its name. Gradually, the pediatricians expose the child to complex forms of learning e.g. the use of a picture book and a short sentence formation. In the last phase (Phase VI), the pediatrician pushes the child to engage in conversation. The use of the system is ideal because it emphasizes on the use of reinforcement, to motivate the child to learn the language and acquire speech.

In conclusion, Heller syndrome (childhood disintegrative disorder) can be a devastating diagnosis for parents who were certain that they had a healthy child. The fact that the condition does not have a definite treatment regime means that parents have to watch their child lose his motor, speech, and physical abilities. A child who had developed language loses it and becomes lost, in terms of understanding his environment. It is critical for a parent to accept his or her child’s condition and establish strategies to simply the child’s life. Parents can work with pediatricians, to help the child acquire bits of his motor skills and speech. The pediatricians may also need to work with a neurologist, to understand the child’s brain functions in relation to the acquisition and loss of basic skills. Parents must see a doctor immediately they note the first symptoms of a developmental milestone.


Charan, S. (2012). Childhood disintegrative disorder. Journal of pediatric neuroscience. Vol. 7:55

Flippin, M., Reszka, S., & Watson, L. R. (2010). Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on Communication and Speech for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. American Journal Of Speech-Language Pathology, 19(2), 178-195. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2010/09-0022

Malhotra, S., Subodh, B., Parakh, P., & Lahariya, S. (2013). Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 43(9), 2207-2210. Doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-1762-6

Valinia, F. (2013). Olanzapine in the treatment of childhood disintegrative disorder. MJP online

Zwaigenbaum et al. (2000). High functioning autism and childhood disintegrative disorder in half brothers. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. Vol. 30(2); 121

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in Write My Research Paper For Me services. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from custom nursing essay writing services.

Role of parents in language development of children


The parent-child interaction is the most important context in which children’s early language, social and literacy development (, 2011). If parents provide their children with a positive and responsive learning at an early age, the kid will be able to reach his/her full potential in light of language development. The aim of this paper is to assess how the quantity and quality of parent-child interactions contribute to language development and to find out the factors that will in influence this interaction. It devolves into the processes of early communication and highlights ways in which language develops as a child grows. It describes the impact of socio-demographic factors, the essence of home learning and early communication environment and how they influence child’s language development.

How does the baby communication language develops

There is a complex process in involvement in the early developments of relationships and communication in human beings (Hamer, 2012). There are a good number of studies and theories that serve as evidence to this fact. In the last decade, there was and emergence of a very clear picture of how communication and language develop in babies. They also show the way a child’s experience in an early age laid a foundation for their future development. Language and conceptual advancement engage many factors, socio-economic status one of the most crucial as it encapsulates the differences in beliefs, attitudes, motivations and behaviors of parents. There is a hypothesis that the different parent-child interaction patterns play a major role in holding back or stimulating a child’s language development.

Contingency and communication

Toddlers have a natural attunement for interaction through babbling, gestures and facial expressions (Hamer, 2012). As parents respond to it with the same expressions or gestures, this help in extending the child’s communication and vocalizations. Through the back-and-forth interactions between the parents and their children, the brain architecture can develop. That is what we refer to as contingency, sensitivity or responsiveness (National Literacy Trust, 2010). The responsive responses between parents and children serve as expansions or recasts of the child’s prior utterances, which studies reveal that are predictors to language development (Nelson et al., 1973).

High degree of joint engagement and reciprocity has association with more effective communication and rapid language development of a child. Parents that let their children take the lead in the communication have more influence than the ones who try to direct the child (National Literacy Trust, 2010). Research has it that contingency is vital both psychologically and cognitively in order for babies to have secure attachments. The child is also able to develop strong linguistic ability in terms of gestures, vocalization, syntax and speech. In addition to that, the baby is also able to acquire understanding of the rules of conversation and to develop a sense of self especially in their first year of life.

Development of communication language

Development of a child’s language is an active and an interactive process. Researchers (Gopnick & Nazzi, 2000), the brain is a ‘social brain’ that develops through social interactions more especially the relationship between parent and child. They continue to say that, from birth infants can discriminate human faces and voices from other sensory stimuli. From birth, children discriminate against unfamiliar people from their parents. Those abilities are an important part of babies for developing their neurology.

To hold a child more lovingly spurs the/her development much more than even breastfeeding the kid (Kim et al., 2013). The parents continue to adopt the babies’ tempo and rhythm as the baby grows with the parents expanding their activities in light of child’s activity. Through a reciprocal process of comment, a reflection back, and evaluation, the parent’s activity gives a very significant to the child’s activity. The child can acquire language through constructing representations of the sounds they hear.

The representations are what form with time their native language. By the age of three months, the baby begins cooing and vocalizing, and if the baby gets the response, there will be an increase in vocalization (David, et al., 2003). A few months later the child begins to babble particularly when the baby is alone. Children begin with using of gestures for their communication before they begin to use real words. The very first gestures they use are such as clapping, reaching out for something, waving, and this normally take place in the 9 to 11 months of the kid’s age. These gestures are the predictive to the development of their first oral language.

As from the age of 12 months, the child can typically babble some words as he/she connects it with gestures. With time the gestures secede, and she begins to predict language outcomes. Early gestures selectively predict the early language outcomes of children (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009). From their observation study, Rowe and Goldin-Meadow found that as children interact with their caregivers at home, the number of gestures they use at the age of 18 months was a strong predictor of their vocabulary. Further, they say that the amount of gestures in combination with speech predict the child’s sentence complexity at the age of 42 months.

As a language continues to develop, the children can map words to existing cognitive structures and concepts. Through that, the children begin to organize their knowledge of familiar objects or events. The language skills of the children then develop through lexically rich conversations with their parents (Dickinson & McCabe, 2001). Evidence shows that the children develop language more effectively when parents engage them in contingency interaction. In every language, parents interact with their parents through language scholars refer to as infant-directed speech or baby talk. The complexity of the baby talk continues to increase as babies communicative abilities increase.

Parents who have children of varying ages can influence their kids’ language by talking about things that are interesting and encouraging the children to do it equally. A style that is elaborative such as a description of objects, varying intonation and actions description helps children to develop language faster (Scott, 2008). The parents should use at that point question and explanations for the effective reminiscence.

Exploring Parental influences on child’s language development

Studies have it that the age of the mother, parents’ SES, ethnicity, first language and mental health influence a child’s language development (National Literacy Trust, 2010).

Age of the mother

From the studies, adolescent mothers (average age of 15) speak less, have fewer utterances with joint attention and provide small number of object labels. Another thing is that adolescent mothers provide fewer affectionate talks and give more commands when you compare them with their counterparts at the mean age of 23 years (McDonald et al., 2013). The toddling of the adolescent mothers vocalizes less often when you compare them with infants of older mothers. From the research, correlations of the Pearson product-moment indicate a positive significant association between the variables of the mother language and toddling variables. The fewer active and contingency engagements deter the quick language development of the child.

Maternal depression and child’s language development

Maternal depression and the common class of antidepressants can alter language development of kids (University of British Columbia, 2012). The studies show that if the depression does not receive treatment, there will be prolonging of the child’s attunement to the sights and sound of their first language. However, if the depression receives treatment with SRIs, the ability of the babies to attune to the sights and sounds of their first language will have acceleration. The study helps us not only to concentrate on their babies but also to help their mothers to be in good health condition free from depressions.

The UBC did the study on three groups of mothers whereby one was receiving treatment with SRIs, another suffering but not receiving treatment and the third had no depression. They did measurement in the heart beat changes and eye movement to sounds and images of native and foreign language to the kids. They did calculation of the language development of the babies in three intervals. Mothers suffering from depression are less contingent and use touch less. They demonstrate less optimal interaction with the toddling while the fathers fail to compensate for the deficiency.

Exploring parents’ socioeconomic status

In the research by Hart and his colleague, parents in lower SES produce fewer tokens than those from high SES (Hart & Risley, 1995).  The parents from lower SES do not prefer talking much; they guard their speech unlike the other case of high SES parents who are forthcoming in their speech. However, that is the case when there was an observer. It is possible that the low-income parents have fewer talks to their children when they are alone or that those from high socioeconomic status have more talks to their babies. However, Hart and Risley conclude that though there is that disparity ion amount of speech, the quality of interactions does not differ between the two cases.

 Just as children require nourishing food to edify physical strength, they as well need linguistic nutrition for optimal language development and cognitive abilities (Carey, 2013). Research by Stanford psychologists has it that much interacting with toddlers, the child learns to process language more quickly. The quick processing of language by the child consequently accelerates growth in vocabulary. However, the number of vocabularies highly depends on socioeconomic status (SES) of the family (Carey, 2013). Children from lower SES families have smaller vocabularies and language proficiency than their counterparts from higher SES families.

Demographic factors and child’s language development

Literature consistently associates child care exposure and geographical location to the child’s language development (Pancsofar & Vernon, 2010). Amount of hours in a week that babies spend in an unfamiliar child care exposure has influence in their early language development. In many ethnographic studies, there is evidence that different communities have different cultures of mother language, and this highly influences the rate of the language development of the child. It is important to note that the child cannot exist in an environment if the parent does not take him/her there.

Exploring parenting styles

A parenting style that involves parental warmth with a combination of high expectations and clear rules plus routines has implication on the language development. Parent warmth has high impact on positive outcomes in later years such as higher achievement, better memory and language ability (Farah et al., 2008). From the study, a mother who has highest dyadic interactions’ control strategies has children who use very short sentences with fewer grammatical words. On the other hand, high maternal sensitivity in having more interactive communication with the child leads to faster development of underlying skills for language development

With parents’ responsive, sensitive and predictable care, children begin from an early age to develop the skills that are a requirement for them to succeed in life (Singer et al., 2013). Through those relationships, children learn the vital skills that they need in order to engage with others and succeed in diverse environments (Rogoff, 2003). Those early interactions between the infants and young children with their parents help in driving their emotional, physical, as well as intellectual development. When there is the responsibility on the side of parents regarding children’s cues, they contribute to a coordination of back and forth communication between parent and child.

The families can devise ways of engaging in everyday learning activities even with very tender age children. Through this help, children have a lifelong motivation, persistence and a love of learning (Dunst et al., 2011). For instance, parents may involve engaging their children in literacy activities such as pointing to and naming objects, telling stories and reading. The parents can then include joint literacy activities such as sharing exciting conversations about educational topics and reading together, and this stimulates their brains (McWayne et al., 2004). It is through the provision of repeated, positive relationships with parents for their children that wi8ll have a lasting impact on their children’s language development (Shiver, 2001).

Father and mother language input

Maternal language input to their children has a positive association top the children’s linguistic abilities’ development (Lyons et al., 1991). Particularly, the diverse vocabulary of the mother plays a great role in predicting the child’s later language development. The studies include many things in studying of maternal language input including toy play, book and mealtime activities. Though many previous research associates more the maternal language input as more influential than the paternal one, the latter is also imperative.

The research presents a dearth of information on the role of paternal language play in a child’s language development especially in low-income and minority families. Mothers and Mothers have no difference in the amount of talk or amount of vocabulary usage especially in their native language, but the father tends to use more language. That is a study that took place by Rowe et al. (2004) comparing mothers and fathers in terms of language input during toy play with their children and book activities. They did the study across a number of races and family social classes following those families for some months in their daily routines.

They have found out that mothers spend a lot of time with their infants and feed them more, whereas the fathers vocalize more and show more affection to the infants. It clearly shows that the father and mother use the language in different ways with different influences of the language in their children’s language development.

Parental education in relation to child’s language development

Maternal education highly predicts the child’s development especially in the area of linguistic abilities (Hoff, 2006).  The study shows that when the mother has high education, the interaction with the child is more than when the mother has a low level of education. The research on the father’s level of education and its relation to language development, there are also some suggestions. There are suggestions that the father with a high level of education provides more care giving and socialization and more warm with their children (Woodworth et al., 1996). Fathers in low-income families are more likely to read more often with their children they have high school diploma (Duursma et al., 2008).

The parents’ book reading context

 The language that mothers use the joint book reading sessions with their children promote the child’s later language and literacy skills (Ninio, 1983). The maternal book reading activities enhance the child’s vocabulary development and promote the meta-linguistic awareness in the child. When they are reading to the children, the parents usually engage the children in asking the questions that make the children more proficient in the participation. The studies show the same scenario when it comes to the engagement between the father and the child though some studies present a slightly different case.

One of the studies come from Knight and his colleagues, and it has it that mothers tend to be more contingent in the book reading sessions with their children (Knight et al., 1997). The studies from Duursma et al. (2008) examine the case of fathers and book reading interaction with their kids, but it uses a second-hand data. They report that as much as the mothers have more joint book reading sessions with their children, the fathers carry out the sessions on a more frequent basis than the mothers. Extensive studies are a requirement in order to ascertain the differences between the mother’s and father’s book reading interactions with their children.

Exploring consistency with the use of one language per parent

The consistency with one parent one language is relatively effective in the child’s language development (Takeuchi, 2006). Through the interaction, the child can develop a bilingual language more quickly. Children from a bilingual family can learn the two languages fluently even without much effort from parents in using signs, especially before age twelve (Lenneberg, 1967).  The study shows that the learning of the second language, when the child is past twelve years, is enormously difficult. For the child, the parent with the minority language should be the main speaker. That is because the quantity of input has a positive correlation with language development (Snow, 1995)


Therefore, the interactive engagements between children and their parents and children are very crucial in enhancing the child’s language (Safwat & Sheikhany, 2014). The early communication skills for the child and his/her oral language developments are very vital as they influence the child’s future life. The home learning environment that is the onset of the child’s language development will influence even the child’s educational attainment. As the paper reveals, the SES of the family influences the communication skills of the child and the child from the low SES have fewer opportunities for the language development. With all the other factors as above, the parents play a very important role in language development of their children.


Dickinson DK, McCabe A. (2001). Bringing it all together: the multiple origins, skills, and environmental supports of early literacy. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice. 16(4) 186-202.

Dunst, C. et al. (2006). Everyday activity settings, natural learning environments, and early intervention practices. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 3 (1), 3-10.

Hamer, C. (2012). NCT research overview: Parent-child communication is important from birth.

Kim, J. et al. (2013). Effects of emotional context memory for details: The role of attention.

 Mastergeorge, A. et al. (2011). Developmental pathways to  integrated social skills: The roles of parenting and early intervention. Child Development, 82(2), 583-600

Pancsofar, N. & Vernon-Feagans, L.  (2011). Father’s early contributions to children’s language development in families from low-income rural communities. 25(4) 450-463

Rowe ML & Goldin-Meadow S. (2009) Early gesture selectively predicts later language learning. 12(1) 182-187

Shiver, E. (2001). Brain development and mastery of language in the early childhood years.

The National Literacy Trust (2010). The early language campaign of the National Literacy Trust. Retrieved from

Woodworth, S. et al. (1996). The determinants of fathering during the child’s second and third years of life: A developmental analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 58():679–692.

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in Write My Research Paper For Me services. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from custom nursing essay writing services.

Theory of Proposed Solution

The theory I am going to utilize in my solution is operant conditioning theory. Based on the fact that the solution to the nursing problem is reliant on consistent and continued engaging in physical exercise, as well as diet, the patient and target population needs to have the behavior reinforced. The components of the theory posit that are ensuring that there is a reinforcement that applied in response to an event, and then the probability of a repeat performance. It further argues that on the occasions that particular response reinforced by the following of a particular schedule, the probability of the behavior increasing or decreasing is high. Proper utilizing of the dynamics of this theory can use in the assessment of the means of changing people’s behavior in healthcare especially in relation to diabetes and women over 40 years (ARANTES, 2012). The rationale for selecting the theory follows the idea that suing certain tendencies as reminders and advertisements, a behavior in support of a healthy diet and exerting can reinforced in the population. Establishing a strict schedule with the patient in relation to training and ensuring that there is a proper follow-up and monitoring the individuals will in time develop the culture. Ensuring that there are clear pictures and labels on the nutritious content of foods over time will encourage the people to engage in healthy nutrition (Strohacker, Galarraga, & Williams, 2014).

In an effort to incorporate the theory into the project, I will ensure that all the nursing personnel have the clear guidelines in relation to our culture. Establishing a strict schedule for follow ups on the programs we forget is the other way of enhancing reinforcements. Undertaking a vicious media campaign is the other strategy we will be using to enhance the reinforcements undertaking campaigns to encourage people to engage in physical activity. Having precise art in schools depicting the harm resulting from the fast foods from the vending machines will be the other mode of reinforcing the desired behavior (Dunst, 2007).


ARANTES, J., BERG, M. E., DIEN, L., & GRACE, R. C. (2012). RESISTANCE TO CHANGE AND PREFERENCE FOR VARIABLE VERSUS FIXED RESPONSE SEQUENCES. Journal Of The Experimental Analysis Of Behavior, 98(1), 1-21. doi:10.1901/jeab.2012.98-1

Dunst, C. J., Raab, M., Hawks, O., Wilson, L. L., & Parkey, C. (2007). Relative Efficiency of Response-Contingent and Response – Independent Stimulation on Child Learning and Concomitant Behavior. Behavior Analyst Today, 8(2), 226-236.

Strohacker, K., Galarraga, O., & Williams, D. (2014). The Impact of Incentives on Exercise Behavior: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Annals Of Behavioral Medicine, 48(1), 92-99. doi:10.1007/s12160-013-9577-4

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in Write My Research Paper For Me services. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from custom nursing essay writing services.

Lean manufacturing


Lean manufacturing refers to a business model and collection of the tactical methods which emphasize on eliminating activities that do not add value while delivering quality products on time, at least cost, and with greater efficiency. Lean manufacturing involves the never-ending effort of eliminating or reducing waste in manufacturing, design, customer service, and distribution processes (Wood & Murphy 2011). The philosophy behind lean manufacturing is providing superior quality products for more clients at a significant lower price and contributing to a prosperous society. Lean concerns are delivering more value to the business and its customers through increasing the velocity throughput and minimizing waste practices by balancing the process flow (Agus & Mohd 2012). Lean manufacturing is a business philosophy and this report argues for lean manufacturing while focusing on the importance of philosophy

Lean manufacturing

Management is always keen on improving productivity of an organization. It is possible to improve productivity either through producing more with the same resources or producing the same through consuming fewer resources (Arfmann & Barbe 2014). The focus is normally on reducing resource utilization and reducing waste. Lean manufacturing is a new philosophy that focuses on waste elimination and control. Toyota developed the lean manufacturing philosophy and system through the application of production principles introduced and defined by Henry Ford (Agus & Mohd 2012). The lean approach focuses on finding efficiencies and removing the wasteful steps that do not add value to the end product. There is no need of reducing quality with lean manufacturing as the cuts are a result of getting better and more efficient ways for accomplishing the same tasks. In order to find efficiencies, the approach tends to adopt a customer-value focus. Lean tend to be a philosophy of manufacturing incorporating the collection of tools, principles, and techniques in the business processes to optimize human resources, time, productivity, and assets (Dinis-Carvalho & Sousa 2012). Applying the Lean manufacturing philosophy is an essential concept that helps organizations to gain competitive advantage in the world market.

Lean thinking refers to the removal of waste from the value chain. Waste is any human activity absorbing resources, but creating no real value. Lean thinking normally offers a way to specify a value, line-up actions for value creation, conduct activities without interruption, and perform them effectively. The organization of manufacturing companies is into departments and functions. The grouping of workers and assets along the functional lines tend to be a logical choice for managing tasks as efficient as possible (Arfmann & Barbe 2014). However, service and goods movement from one function to the next and planning and coordination needed to do so introduces delay and other wastes. That is why companies should consider the significant gains of implementing lean manufacturing. Lean is important for organizations’ as it reorganizes the departments and functions along the lines of value stream with the work cells and assets dedicated to a certain task. When using a lean approach, it will be possible to remove the unnecessary and non-value adding activities from the system, leading to an efficient process.

In lean manufacturing, the concept of value-adding tends to be very important. The value-adding activity is one that the customer, external or internal, considers as being truly worthwhile. The value-adding activities are those that either produce valuable information or services that the client will pay for or transform materials into products. It is necessary for organizations to consider lean manufacturing and mostly within non-process industries. Its benefits include reduced inventories for manufacturers, decreased lead times for customers, improved knowledge management, and robust processes (Dinis-Carvalho & Sousa 2012). As a result of the benefits its offers, it makes lean to be a very physical and real concept for manufacturing. Lean tends to be a very wonderful experience when organizations deploy it properly; however, it can be a nightmare when it is not. With proper deployment, a company has productive and happy employees, on-time deliveries, increased efficiency, and many other desirable outcomes. When the company does not deploy the Lean concept well, the company can have frustrated employees, angry customers, quality problems, later delivery, and also loss of sleep for the top management.

A positive aspect of using lean manufacturing is that it uses few resources in every aspect while increasing production volume (Chien-Ho 2010). Also, lean manufacturing requires a special relationship with customers, retailers, and sub-contractors. The aim of involving these parties is to shorten the lead time and improve the quality. The involvement of retailers means that they are present during the analysis of customer’s requirements and needs. With lean manufacturing, the customer is normally at the first level whereby, despite manufacturing what the customer want, the company also makes an effort to create a long-term relationship with the client.

Argument for lean manufacturing

The basic concept in lean thinking is eliminating waste and creating value. Lean manufacturing tends to be a manufacturing philosophy focusing on continuous elimination of waste in the business processes. A major argument in support of lean manufacturing is cost reduction through elimination of waste. According to Jones and Womack (2008), the reduction and elimination of waste gradually and efficiently help boost and raise earnings and profits of an organization. The elimination of unproductive activities objects, behaviors, and tasks in the place of work helps the organization and its personnel in focusing on the demands and requirements of customers. Lean normally makes it possible to eliminate unproductive activities and when the company achieves customer satisfaction, the sales will increase. Lean manufacturing is of great help in assisting organizations to establish a good relationship with customers (Agus & Mohd 2012).

In manufacturing, there is a need for constant effort at cost reduction so as to maintain continuous profits. Lean manufacturing aims at eliminating waste. The prime way to reducing cost is producing only products determined by the sale in a timely fashion. It is easy to reduce the cost through restraining excessive manufacturing and eliminating all waste in the manufacturing methods. Different ways exist for analyzing and implementing cost reduction, from the designing stage to the manufacturing and sales. A major goal of lean manufacturing is locating waste pragmatically in every process and then eliminating the waste (Dinis-Carvalho & Sousa 2012). When using the approach, it provides the possibility of uncovering large amounts of waste through observing employees, materials, equipments, and organizations on the production line from the perspectives of the process and work involved.

The benefit of lean manufacturing is that it allows the thorough elimination of waste that result to greater employee self-respect and cost reduction through preventing unnecessary losses. Lean is about having the right resources for delivering value to clients through improving various areas in the service delivery including quality, safety, delivery, morale, and cost. Lean manufacturing tends to be an essential concept in management because it requires organizations to avoid departmentalized batch thinking. Jones and Womack (2008) state that it is efficient to set-up processes for having a continuous flow of the raw materials to finished products than in dividing aspects of the process in batches. When using the philosophy, it tends to make it easy to keep the product in focus instead of the actual machine time or production. The lean system normally helps organizations to shorten the time taken in order for the product to move from the raw material to the finished product.

Another benefit of lean manufacturing is that it helps in creating conditions for guaranteeing product quality. The main objective of any manufacturing company is to produce high-quality product. Lean manufacturing tends to have various ways of supporting the commitment of building quality into the process. The principle tends to provide each operator with the responsibility of checking quality at every stage of work in the process. In the process, it brings product inspection direct to the process so that the good products can flow to the next process and defects extracted at the point (Agus & Mohd 2012). Lean manufacturing normally ensures product quality because every operator should be aware that the next process is a customer and should never send a defective product to the customer. Lean manufacturing tends to take several measures and expend much effort to ensure that if a defect in quality occurs; it is possible to uncover the true cause and then apply countermeasures to prevent the recurrence.

Lean manufacturing is important for companies because it improves the quality and reduces defects. With the implementation of lean, it allows the manufacturer to streamline its processes all through the entire company from the front office to the distribution. As a result, the company witnesses’ efficiencies and the manufacturer can be able to work to its full potential. It leads to a reduced manufacturing cost and increases speed to market. A major benefit of implementing the lean manufacturing strategies and techniques is that it helps in reducing the manufacturing time (Jones and Womack 2008). With the reduction in manufacturing lead-time, it will mean that the operational cost incurred from the use of utilities, wages, and energy time will also reduce. Hence, it is necessary for organizations to consider the implementation of the lean approach as it helps companies in maintaining, retaining, and increasing their earnings. Companies are also able to widen their margins and also generate savings from lower costs.

While supporting the implementation of lean manufacturing processes, the approach also benefits companies in terms of productivity. According to researchers, companies adhering and implementing lean manufacturing practices tend to boost and increase their productivity by as much as 75 to 125 % (Dinis-Carvalho & Sousa 2012). Lean manufacturing increases productivity with that percentage because process principally targets time and efforts. Hence, it eliminates waste, behaviors, practices, and also disturbing and unnecessary objects in the place of work. The elimination of these factors enables workers to get on their tasks with much comfort and smooth pacing. When workers are working without any form of interruption and distraction, they will be able to increase their performance; thus, maximizing productivity. Therefore, lean manufacturing is a necessity for companies in order to be able to achieve the goal of increasing productivity.

A major argument against the use of lean manufacturing is that the philosophy only applies to the automobile production. The argument is perhaps understandable because the origin of lean is Toyota and its impact on the automobile industry (Chien-Ho 2010). However, the concept of lean manufacturing does not only apply to an automobile industry but apply to a vast range of processes and operations in different industries. Lean philosophy can apply to healthcare, aircraft manufacturing, offices, and insurance companies. The lean concepts tend to be very broad and applicable to a wide variety of industries.

Companies should embrace lean manufacturing as it improves productivity through inventory control and production planning (Chien-Ho 2010). When companies implement lean manufacturing, the entire production process tends to become more efficient. It is because the technique enables production planners to know how much inventory hey need so as to keep the line moving without having to risk spending too much on inventory not being in use. The technique also makes it possible to address any problems in the production line before they become large such that they can slow down the production process.

Why the need lean manufacturing

Removal of unnecessary processes and waste reduction tends to save companies millions of dollars a year. Lean manufacturing benefits the company and also the consumers of products. With the technique, consumers are able to enjoy an increase in the value of their products and employees has the chance of appreciating their jobs because of motivation and incentives. Lean manufacturing aims at reducing the cycle time and getting products to customers on time Asefeso (2013). Companies with small manufacturing defects should implement lean manufacturing as it will help uncover some of these problems and also help in determining solutions for the problems. When using lean manufacturing, it provides managers if companies with a distinct advantage over their competitors because they can produce a higher quality product at a lower price.

Companies should also consider the need for having lean manufacturing as it helps in improving the communication process for everyone in the company (Dinis-Carvalho & Sousa 2012). In case there is a breakdown in communication in the company, the manufacturing process will encounter some problems along the way. In this regard, the lean technique normally focuses on informing every person in the supply chain so that they can come up with the same end result, rather than focusing on one specific task. The supply chain tends to have excess waste because people normally duplicate orders Asefeso (2013). As a result, it leads to waste of money and time for the company and also frustration among employees. The only available method of getting back on track is through creating a smooth work-flow. In regards, lean manufacturing helps in this aspect as it will find ways of making use of the wasted space. If a company has small spaces, not in use, it can do small things so as to make use of the space. For instance, it can consider moving some equipment to the area and that may help improve the flow of production.

Lean manufacturing is also necessary as it usually help in improving delivery time, handling materials, storage requirements, and defects. The process makes it easy for a company to use its employees and equipments effectively. According to Asefeso (2013), those companies implementing lean manufacturing tend produce high-quality products at a lower price. Thus, it allows companies to market their products faster and also control their advertising and marketing costs. When a company has proper control of their cash flow, it helps the company with its development and expansion. The implementation of lean technique helps organizations in getting rid of some of the manufacturing challenges that companies may be experiencing. Lean manufacturing is essential as it helps in smoothing out the business processes between all departments. With the implementation of lean manufacturing, organizations can benefit from waste reduction, reduced cycle time, reduced administrative costs, improved customer satisfaction, promote friendly office practices, and reduced competition from other companies. Lean manufacturing tends to be a process that will take time for one to complete master it.

When considering the economy, the customer demands continue to increase every day and the traditional manufacturing is seeking better ways of answering the demands. Several researchers show how companies are using lean manufacturing strategies in meeting the demands of the economy Asefeso (2013). The increasing corporate mandate for increased profitability and reduced working capital have management staff searching for ways of reducing the manufacturing lead times, decrease cost, eliminate waste, and increase capacity. Today, lean manufacturing is proven technique that links and balance work steps so as to enable products to flow one at a time.


Lean manufacturers focus their efforts on producing outputs that customers want with the minimum cost for materials, tools, and labor. Lean manufacturing focus on providing superior quality products for more clients at a significant lower price and to contribute to a prosperous society. In over a decade, many industries are converting to lean manufacturing and the benefits the companies are achieving from the process are undisputable. Some people are still criticizing the philosophy and companies wondering whether to implement the new approach; however, these companies should know that they are in jeopardy of relinquishing the market share they have today. The reliance, comfort, and loyalty to the old models of production in meeting the increasing needs of internet-age customers will separate the marginal companies from the stars in the industry. Thus, it is necessary for organization management to consider the need for implementing lean manufacturing because its benefits are enormous.

Lean tend to be a process, concept, set of tools, and techniques that bring a trail of success in the process of ensuring effective allocation of resources. The underlying idea of lean is ensuring then elimination of waste from the operations and processes of the organization. The benefit of lean manufacturing is that the approach normally uses few resources in every aspect while increasing the production volume. Applying the Lean manufacturing philosophy is an essential concept that helps organizations to gain competitive advantage in the world market. In this report, we discussed how the philosophy benefits organizations through waste reduction, reduced cycle time, reduced administrative costs, improved customer satisfaction, promote friendly office practices and reduced competition from other companies.


Agus, A. & Mohd, S. (2012). Lean production supply chain management as a driver towards enhancing product quality and business performance International Journal of Quality and Reliability, 29(1), 92-121

Ailves, A., Dinis-Carvalho, J, & Sousa, R. (2012). Lean production as promoter of thinkers to achieve companies’ agility The Learning Organization, 19(3), 219-237

Arfmann, D. & Barbe, G. (2014). The value of lean in the service sector- a critique of theory & Practice International Journal of Business & Social Science, 5(2), 18-24

Asefeso, A (2013). Lean implementation AA Global Sourcing Ltd

Chien-Ho, K. (2010). Application of lean production system in the construction industry Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 5 (2), 71- 77

Womack, J., Jones, D., & Roos, D. (2008). The Machine that Changed the World New York, Rawson Association

Wood, D & Murphy, P (2011). Contemporary logistics Prentice Hall

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in Write My Research Paper For Me services. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from custom nursing essay writing services.


Meletus accuses Socrates of being evil and corrupting the minds of the young making them believe in his invention of a supernatural phenomena rather than believing in the gods of the state. Meletus also accuses him of, not believing in the gods sanctioned by the state. Thus, he is a negative influence on the youths. Similarly, the older accusers levy accusations against him claiming that he does not believe in the gods but he only teaches physical explanations about the heavenly and earthly phenomena. Secondly, he teaches how to make a weak claim overcome a strong claim using clever oratory.

Socrates refutes the claims by asking if he had such a negative influence on the youths of Athens what was that then that had a positive influence. In his argument, Socrates uses an analogy with horses. He argues that only those who train horses have a good influence on horses whereas, majority of the people would have influence the horses negatively. He argues that by harming others together with the entire society, he would also be harming himself as he is part of the society. Socrates argues that he is not that stupid to hurt himself and if he does so, it is without his intent. He concludes that he who harms himself should be guided and reproved rather than being tried and punished.

On the matter that he does not believe in the gods approved by the state which he assumes that it is the bad influence Meletus is referring to, Socrates argues that he (Meletus) confuses him with Anaxagoras, a well known presocratic. In his argument to disapprove his accusers, Socrates informs the audience that Meletus was out to test whether Socrates who thinks to be wise could detect the contradiction in accusation by indicating that Socrates believed in gods and at the same time not believing in any god. Therefore, Socrates makes an attempt to show that he is a believer in gods of some sort. Socrates argued that it was not possible to believe in human issues but fail to believe in human beings or musical issues and fail to without believing in musicians. Thus, it would be impossible to believe in supernatural things and fail to believe in supernatural things. The affidavit presented by Meletus shows that Socrates believes and teaches his followers to believe in supernatural matters. He argued that if he believes in supernatural powers, then it means that he believes in supernatural beings and the only supernatural beings he knew were the gods and the sons of and the children of the gods. Lastly, Socrates dismisses the whole allegations by Meletus, and he tells him, “you have no care at all, whether great or small, about the matter.

The fact that Meletus affidavit indicated that Socrates believed and taught others on how to believe in supernatural matters contradicts with the accusation that Socrates does not believe in the gods. As Socrates argued you could not believe in supernatural matter and fail to believe in the supernatural beings. To show how contradicting the accusation were, Socrates again uses the analogy of horses where he asks whether it is possible to believe that mules do exist but deny the existence of horses and asses. Socrates tried to show the extent in which Meletus contradicted himself.

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in Write My Research Paper For Me services. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from custom nursing essay writing services.

Observations of Adult Educators

The first observation was conducted on Doctor Amy Gregg, who is an associate professor in the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management. Dr. Amy is the co-chair of the student involvement committee for the National Association for the Interpretation, Region IV. During the observation process, DR. Amy was teaching recreation and interpretation. The aim of the lesson or course was to give students experiential learning and giving them more opportunities to pursue outdoor experiences in their lives. The doctor was very specific in giving the objective of the lesson and particular in giving instructions. One of the most visible characteristics of her class presentation was the audible voice and the interactive nature of the class. Dr. Amy engaged the class through questions and use of real life examples. The questions time allowed her to pose and interrogate whether all students were concentrating. She also used the opportunity to allow students to ask clarification questions. These traits made her very approachable thus winning the attention of the students. The visible materials included a personal computer and an instruction book. The lecturer referred students to other sources of information on the topic. However, only a small percentage of the learners seemed interested to record the alternate sources of information. It was incredible to see Dr. Amy control the classroom effective even when some students seemed too excited at one point. The physical arrangement of the lecture hall was good with good lighting and comfortable chairs. However, I was quick to note that Dr. Amy did not the sum up the class at the end by referring to initial objectives. There was a lack of consolidation as the lecture time elapsed without Dr. Amy’s consciousness.

The second observation was the Dr. Paula Sampson, who is an associate professor in the Department of Family and Consumer Sciences. The observation was done during a Dapping class (FCFA 303). The course involves training the students how to adapt standard patterns to individual proportions, to design garments and to create original garments by the flat method. When in entered the lecture hall, Dr. Paula was giving lecture notes using a PowerPoint. The class was in small groups of four students. Through the PowerPoint slides, the instructor was describing to studies with visual examples. Although the class was organized in groups, Dr. Paula was in control of the entire class. She demonstrated mastery in classroom management because he succeeded in engaging the student while at the same time allowing students to consult amongst themselves. The interactive discussion was punctuated by questions and clarifications from students. The lecture hall had great classroom atmosphere. The learners were attentive to the instructor and eager to learn. The use of visual aids and the PowerPoint seemed to help the Doctor deliver her subject with great mastery. She portrayed mastery of content, and she did not keep on referring to the slides while teaching. Another positive element of the classroom was the way the doctor organized her points. The lesson objectives were clearly articulated. At the beginning of the lecture, Paula posed the objectives in the form of questions and through the slides, she answered the questions systematically. The conclusion of the class was remarkable as the teacher dissolved the groups and gave the students some notes. However, according to my observation, the scope or the areas the lecturer covered within the class was wide considering the allocated time. At one time, I felt like the doctor was teaching at a faster pace.

In my third assignment, I observed Professor Rahmatullah Imon. Professor Imon lectures in the Mathematical Sciences Department. He specializes in mathematical statistics, regression, mathematical theories, econometrics, and time series and computer-intensive statistical methods. On entering the lecture hall, I was not able to grasp the objective of the lesson. The lecturer seemed to be continuing from a previous lesson. Although there was interaction between the professor and the student, the professor adopts a lecture method of teaching. He demonstrated the various concepts to the student giving student little time to ask a question. A good number of the students were tentative, but there were some who seemed lost. However, the overall classroom environment was conducive, and the professor maintained eye contact with the students. On occasions, the professor promoted the student to ask questions but none of the student asked a question. The professor gave the learners much alternate source of information. His focus was largely to provoke the curiosity of the student to learn. At the end of the lecture, the professor provided the student an exercise to attempt and went from one student to the other trying to assist. Consultation amongst students was minimal. The professor did not manage to give individual attention to the students due to the large size of the class and the limited time. However, he concluded by giving the learners alternate sources of information that could assist them in the class.

The observation exercise provided insight into the teaching practice at work. It gave a practical experience on the various strategies educators use in the class and the reality of the teaching practice.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in best nursing essay writers. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from custom nursing papers.



            The research paper entails a comprehensive description of the data backup and the disaster planning strategies for efficient data recovery. Data backup ensures that there is a different and safe storage facility for the data used in the organization. It is the mandate of the organization leadership to ensure that they have an updated data backup. Disaster planning helps in designing technologies and strategies that can help in restoring an organization to the initial status before a disaster strikes. It is a detailed process that should regularly be done according to the changing demands of the business environment.

Data backup

            Data backup is the storage of data fields in a different storage site in preparedness for a disaster that might lead to data loss. At such an instance, the company’s personnel can easily go to the disaster backup site and restore their files and application software. Thus, they will be able to proceed with the normal operations as if nothing happened. Many disaster backup plans are at times rendered useless or ineffective because they rely on data files backed up at the wrong point in time. Therefore, the organization has to analyze what needs to be achieved for it to continue with normal business operations as if nothing happened. There should be both data back-ups for the small disasters like the loss of electric power and the serious disasters like fire or floods. The critical issue in data backup is to consider where the data goes and how to access it when in need. Thus, it is necessary to decide where to store the recovery data (Shelly & Vermaat, 2008).

            In most instances, the data backup facility should be off-site. Among the common data storage facilities include; commercial media storage centers, alternate business locations, third party service providers, and reciprocal processing sites. The other types of data backups include online, server based, and disk-based backups that replaced the traditional magnetic tape backup (Spector, 2009). The offsite location should satisfy some key requires for it to prove the reliability. It should be near the business location, but not too close to the primary site. The plan facilitates fast recovery times. The physical security of the site is paramount to the reliability of the data stored. The site should be free from harm and unauthorized access in a much better way than even the primary site. The data backup media should be near a means of transport so that it can be sent to the recovery center when required. The other consideration is the security of the media while in transit. The means of transport used should have security measures that ensure the safety of the media while en route to and from the storage site.

Disaster planning

            Many business owners invest a lot of funds, resources, and time to make their ventures successful. However, many of them fail to invest much in planning and preparing for disastrous occurrences. The Institute for Business and Home Safety explains that an estimate of 25 percent of the businesses does not reopen after a major disaster. Therefore, it is important to protect the business by identifying the risks associated with natural or man-made disasters. After the identification, the next step should be the creation of a plan for action in case of a disaster. The plans should regularly be updated to ensure the survival of the business (Gregory, 2011).

            Disaster preparedness is not just being ready for a fire or an earthquake, but a more flexible approach to the daily operations of the programs and operations of the organization. It is not always the case that a natural disaster will strike the organization’s premises. However, disaster planning and preparedness helps in adopting certain technologies and strategies that deepen the nonprofit’s effects and make the work more rapid and efficient.

            There are direct impacts of a disaster on Information technology that affects the operations of the business since many of them depend heavily on the IT department. As a matter of fact, data recovery plan as an essential tool in disaster planning is necessary for the organization. It helps in restoring the business to the original position upon the strike by a disaster. In addition, it ensures the continuity of the business without having interruptions to the IT and the business operations.

Disaster recovery planning process

            Disaster recovery management process should be a continuous process that involves planning, developing, testing, and implementing the procedures and process set in place in case of an interruption (Gregory, 2011). Therefore, disaster recovery planning is not a static document or software program. Recovery planning entails four crucial phases.

Risk and business impact analysis

            The analysis helps in identifying the business functions and resources that have a higher priority than others. Some of the business functions are critical to its continuity and others can be restored later in case of a disaster. Within the first phase, it is paramount to identify the steps that distinguish the minor events from being termed as disasters. The first step also involves the setting of the scope, objectives, and the assumptions within the operations of the organization. Scope is the limits within which the recovery plans reach in its coverage. There are some critical functions that have to be restored with urgency and others can wait to be restored later. The objective shows the purpose of the disaster recovery plan and the strategy expected to be taken by the recovery teams. Assumptions are the things that require no proof, and hence accepted as valid assumptions (Hiatt, 2000).

Strategic planning

            Strategic planning is an important phase for evaluating a wide range of recovery alternatives for the critical business functions. The phase also involves the balancing of the initial and the later costs associated with the recovery time frames for every strategy alternative. The comparison of the costs and benefits helps in making informed decisions on the recovery capabilities. After the assessment of every plan, the personnel involved select the best and most effective plan to follow (Dixon Jr., 2013).

Continuation plan documentation

            The documentation phase arranges the employees into the recovery action teams. Each of the teams has distinct objectives, resources, and procedures for activating the recovery plan. Organizations make a choice from the best strategy for their business continuity in regard to the function, product line and the specific location (Lewis, 2003).

Testing, Training, and Maintenance

            The phase is essential for exercising the organization’s changing recovery capabilities as well as familiarizing the employees with their tasks in the plan implementation. The plan should incorporate the testing and the training procedures in order to make it practical and not just a document. The trainings can be conducted in a progressive manner such that any new issue that arises is well accommodated in the plan. An effective plan is dynamic just like the organization. Therefore, it is necessary to update it as any changes arise (Hiatt, 2000).

            Data backup in an organization is a step towards disaster planning since it helps in restoring the business to its initial condition in case of a disaster. The process of backing up data and disaster planning is a continuous process since no one can anticipate for a disaster at certain duration of time. In addition, an organization is prone to different forms of risks that might interfere with the Information Technology mechanisms. The data backup facilities require being safe in order to facilitate an efficient recovery. Disaster planning should be a requirement for all organizations to avoid investing a lot of time and resources in making the business successful in vain. For an efficient disaster recovery planning process, it is necessary to follow the required steps in order to make the plan useful for the organization.


Charlotte J. Hiatt (2000) A Primer for Disaster Recovery Planning in an IT Environment pp. 1-9   ISBN 1878289810, 9781878289810

Dixon Jr., J. B. (2013). Information Technology Disaster Recovery Planning for Court      Institutions: Judges’ Journal, 52(4), 36-39.

Gary Shelly & Misty Vermaat (2008) Discovering Computers: Fundamentals; pp. 479-480,         

Lewis, S. (2003). Disaster Recovery Planning for Information Technology Functions: Nursing      Homes: Long Term Care Management, 52(2), 50.

Peter H. Gregory (2011) IT Disaster Recovery Planning for Dummies; Chapter Six, pp. 197-203   ISBN 1118050630, 9781118050637

Spector, L. (2009) The Best Ways to Backup Your Data: PC World, 27(10), 89-95.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in best nursing essay writers. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from custom nursing papers.

Affordable Care

The authors conducted a study to test the public attitudes towards the affordable care act. The study aimed to establish the public understanding of the ACA. Specifically, the authors aimed to establish whether the public had a clear understanding of the provisions of the act. The authors collected data from two cross-sectional surveys. The authors ensured that they used survey that had national representative samples so as to ensure the viability of the study. The authors gathered data on the responses that respondents gave to measures such as their knowledge and certainty of the Act, as well as their support for the act. The findings revealed that the American public does not have adequate understanding of ACA. Secondly, the study revealed that the variation in understanding varied with the respondent’s political affiliation. The Democrats had a clear understanding of the act compared to the Republicans. The study acknowledged the need for an in-depth understanding of the need to educate the public on ACA.

The author argues that the irking cost of healthcare is the main fiscal problem that faces the healthcare industry. The expensive nature of healthcare services means that the American public utilizes most of its monies on healthcare. The significant expenditure affects small businesses that rely on the American public for survival. Small businesses also encounter additional expenses arising from regulations that recommend employers to make contributions to the employee’s health care fund. The author conducts a diversity of literature reviews to evaluate the impact of Obamacare on small businesses. The literature review revealed that Obamacare affects businesses through their marketplace pricing, employer cancellations, penalties and the cost of health premiums. The analysis of the literature affirmed that delays and glitches have increased uncertainty among small businesses men and consumers because of the underlying consequences.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in best nursing essay writers. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from custom nursing papers.

Case Study Literacy Project

The child I have selected for the case study is Dina, who currently is five and half years old. Dina’s family lives in California, but their native home is Yemen, parents migrating the US to proceed with their education. The family’s social, economic status is average, even though, both parents are students, they undertake paid extra jobs. The basic language of communication at their home is Arabic since they normally live with their grandmother who does not comprehend English. Dina is the only child in the family. The family lives together with both parents as well as the grandmother ever present at the home. Dina is in the kindergarten grade level in her school having not repeated a class yet. Dina has just four months of the preschool experience since the parents did not wish to burden her with school experience at her tender age. The study is being conducted at the child’s home since the mother has insisted that she has to be around for the exercise as well as the fact that Dina is shy and thus may refuse to cooperate.

The Home Literacy Environment

Dina’s home literacy environment is above average due to the fact that it possesses most of the material that is needed for the supporting of a child to stimulate her reading culture. The types of print materials that are present in the environment include alphabet displays, signs, picture books, labels, printed directions, weather diagrams as well as animal diagrams. Various writing, reading and activities available for the child in the home environment include calendars, stuffed animals, beanbag chairs, a box to crawl in and out as well as dress up clothes. In addition, there are magnetic alphabet letters, simple puzzles, writing utensils, songbooks, labels and stickers, pencils, rulers, small white board and a chair. The child is also provided with an alphabet book, crayons for drawing and writing, papers that are readily available, rhyme books and games to help with the alphabet. The various types of literacy experience the child is exposed to include being helped the brothers to read a picture book at a minimum of thrice every week. The mother or the father teaches Dina new words on a daily basis as well as the brothers engaging her in a detailed as well as informative conversation with her once a week at the minimum. Dina is normally assisted with the various rhymes they learn in the kindergarten on a daily basis the parents well as the siblings.

Additionally the siblings on many occasions encourage Dina to tell them what she wants using complete sentences. On a monthly basis, Dina is taken to either the library or bookstore by the siblings as they go to select and exchange their books. I believe the child’s literacy environment has impacted her literacy development as well as knowledge acquisition. The various ways Dina has been affected include already having the ability to spell most of her vocabularies correctly. Additionally the fact that she is able to engage the siblings in a coherent information conversation about, for instance, the manufacture of chocolate indicates that her reasoning ability if well developed. She is normally capable of reading most of the material they are given for their homework with minimal assistance from the sibling or the parents. Her comprehension of the alphabet is also very well structured in that she does not ask for assistance on the occasions she is arranging her magnetic letters. Her vocabulary in relation to the knowledge of the new words is also greatly developed due to the regular interactions she has with the parents and the siblings.

Reading Development

In relation to the identification of the letters, it went as anticipated due to the extensive sessions she has been helped by the parents in the use of the magnetic alphabetic letters. Dina has been excited and all along during our interaction and quick to answer my questions. The only difficulties encountered revolved around her being excited and thus wanting to do more than one thing at a one which would disrupt the sessions as I bring her back. Dina’s letter identification test results indicate that she is above average in regard to her knowledge of the letters, scoring 54. Her response in regard to the alphabets is above reproach for a kindergarten child which implies that that the simulation materials that she uses for her reading is working well. However, the response to the test was mainly regulated by how interesting and captivating they were as the boring areas would see her get absent minded. The challenge that has been noted is in the fact that she is good in the English language and not others.

 Additionally she had difficulties in the identification of those letters that did not have visual features. The future plan for the assessment will entail designing the test to cover various languages. Encompassing the visual features in the test will also be another addition in order to ensure that she is able to establish the associations between the letters easily. Following the fact that parents dedicated a lot of time to helping Dian interpret sounds, I expected excellent results. Her abilities in relation to the responding to the letters sounds are indicative of the fact that Dina is well versed with the pronunciation of the alphabetical letters. The minimal incorrect responses on additionally serve to affirm the findings which indicate that Dina’s abilities in regard to the identification of letters is superior with regard to her education level.

The testing of the word reading went on as planned. If I were to carry out the test a second time, I would ensure that it groups the readers depending on their reading abilities to able to gauge the progress. The child was composed as well as confident during the test which is a strange thing as I expected her to be shy. Dina scores 13 out of the possible 15 in her word reading test which is an indication of the fact that she is above average in her reading. Additionally the result indicates that child reading capacity is beyond her level of study. The main resultant cause of this high score is due to the regular tutoring that the parents offer her on a daily basis as well as excellent reading material they provide her with. The child had some difficulties in reading the words that had close meanings. Her performance in relation to the sand print is above average as well. During my next visit, I will ensure that I bring material that is slightly beyond her grade level.

Prior to the commencement of the test, I expected Dina to experience huge challenges in the interpreting due to the young age. The little time she had in her preschool is the other reason I expected her to have more challenges. Some of the shortcomings I encountered while working with Dina in the assessment followed her placing of words in the wrong order. Also rearranging the words in the sentence was the other issue I encountered. I realized that even though she was young, she made a lot of effort in the interpreting of the concepts. Scoring 19 out of the possible 24 is a fair score considering the age. On the occasion, that she improves in the few areas that are bringing her score down, her performance is going to improve substantially. Her strong areas are in the initial and the last concepts while the challenges are in the ordering of the lines as well as use of commas and quotations marks. Maintaining attention in regard to the writing of texts from the left to the right-hand side made up the other challenge that she faced. In future evaluations, I will ensure that I take due time in ensuring that she is aware of how to write various texts in her book, running properly from left to right.

Dina’s score in the Yopp Singer phonemic test is excellent, missing two points out of the possible 22 points in the test. Her ability to break words as well as clarify the various sounds in the words is excellent which encourages the parents very much. Initially, I had planned to establish the various sources of the errors that Dina was making in her sentences. The issue at hand was as to whether the errors were due to variance in the meaning of the text by the author. Additionally I wished to determine as to whether the structure of the sentence was the cause of the errors. Among the challenges, I encountered included the limitation in Dina’s oral language which resulted in the errors. The inability to get what the printed information clearly meant is the other challenge that Dina faced. For the easy books, Dina scores 85% which more than the average needed for the particular test. She has a good direction in relation to self-correcting herself on the occasion she makes some errors via the utilization of the provided visual information. In relation to the just right books, she has an excellent score in scoring all the questions correctly with 100% accuracy. Her accuracy in regard to the difficult book is 99% which is indicative of her prowess in the utilization of meaning as well as structure coupled with pointing on all the pages as she read. The child had difficulties in reading words which they could write explaining for the difficulty in the mastery of vocabularies.

The Development in Writing

Although I had initially intended not to target the deficiency that I expected her to have, the vocabularies challenges were evident. Thus, the modification entailed assessing the speed of the eye in the deciphering of the necessary information. Dina’s development in the writing of vocabulary is a bit challenged, scoring only 27. The interpretation of the score indicates that the child is having problems in the discerning of differences in the print material. As a result, additional effort is required to assist her develop the writing behaviors early in order to ameliorate the challenge later in life. Teaching her on how to use both the hands as well as the eyes together in relation to how they shall supplement each other should be the target.

The initial plan was to evaluate the Dina’s ability to transform the spoken sounds into written forms that represent the sound. Upon the child, I realized that her ability in the transformation of the words was perfect. Dina score in the interpretation of hearing as well as recording is an excellent 100%, indicating her development in the analysis of the diverse sounds of the spoken words and forming representations. The disclaimer in this point is that the test does not represent a spelling or dictation evaluation. Her strengths lay in the hearing ability which was principal in retaining the sounds that she heard. The subsequent assessments will target Dina’s ability in the translating of the words she hears into a piece of correctly.

Planning and Future

Dina has indicated perfect knowledge in the hearing as well as recording of the sounds in words. The teachers should utilize this aspect to building the child’s foundation in relation to the addition of her vocabularies and reading. Thus, they should enhance the consistency with which Dina reads the news words to increase their ability to comprehend the new words they have been taught. Additionally the teachers should create and maintain an inventory in regard to the children’s progress in as far as their reading is concerned. The provision of the records to the teachers offers basing on which they can evaluate their teaching mechanisms in order to address the challenges of a particular child to enhance their reading. The rationale behind my premises follows that the teachers using the periodic inventory results will be able to evaluate their intervention methods in terms of their success as well as what can be done to improve on them. Thus, the inventory results will inform them of their best target area in an effort to improve the child’s reading potentials.

Diana has indicated progressive results in her identification of letters, which when improved could enhance her writing potential. The various activities and experiences the teachers could utilize an effort to improve the child’s writing abilities include encouraging them to use their pencils and crayons to draw and write. Encouraging them to write the various activities in their everyday life especially in their groups brings out the spirit of competition among them. The competition will motivate them to work harder to beat each other and, as a result, their writing skills will improve. The other aspect that the teachers could encourage among the students In order to develop the writing culture among the kids is in dictating stories to them and asking them to write what they understand. The aspect improves their creativity since the words they remember will remain in their minds for long. Supervising and correcting them accordingly ensures that the changes that Dina implements in regard to the writing will stick with her and consequently improving the writing abilities. Challenging the children to be keeping diaries is the other means that could greatly improve their writing skills as the creativity in their daily writing will be cemented on a daily basis. With the teacher correcting the errors in the student’s writing, the errors with time become minimal and over an extended period are eliminated and perfection attained.

The skills in which Dina needs to put more effort in including the writing of vocabularies, as well as interpretation of the header. In order to develop the Dina’s writing abilities, the mother should involve her more often as they write the home shopping lists as well as filling order forms together. It would ensure that the child has enough practice as well as correction that most of the minor writing errors will b eliminated with time. The joint writing also promotes the confidence that the child has in relation to their ability to write and thus will enjoy more freedom in their writing and consequently greater creativity. With the child knowing that the parent will check what they have been writing will motivate them to work harder to make the parent happy and a result greater motivation to be a good writer.

In order to develop the Dina’s reading skills, the parents should ensure they encourage them to read the simple children story books after they have read it to them. The bedtime story-books that the parent read the child will develop an interest in reading story books and consequently their creativity. Helping the child read the children story book will enable her to understand the hard words which normally kill their motivation to read, thus developing the culture. Additionally, the child will have the comfort in that the parent will help on the occasion that they are unable to comprehend a particular word in their reading. The resultant effect of constant reading at home entails the fact that the vocabulary background will be developed and consequently the confidence to read.

The participation by the parents enhances the children desire to take after the parent who is their role model and as a result increasing the possibility of the activity succeeding. Additionally active participation by the parent increases the rates of conformity and the likelihood of the intervention sticking.


In conclusion, I have to note that Dina’s enthusiasm and desire to learn motivated me very much during our interaction. Her superior comprehension of vocabulary, phonetics, as well as hearing, was a constant factor that reiterated her desire to succeed in her academics. Her keenness and urge to perform better supersedes her tender years. She was fun to evaluate and cannot wait to go back for the reevaluation.


Carroll, L. N., Smith, S. A., & Thomson, N. R. (2015). Parents as Teachers Health Literacy Demonstration Project: Integrating an Empowerment Model of Health Literacy Promotion Into Home-Based Parent Education. Health Promotion Practice, 16(2), 282-290.

Pandya, J. Z., & Pagdilao, K. C. (2015). ‘It’s complicated’: Children learning about other people’s lives through a critical digital literacies project. Australian Journal Of Language & Literacy, 38(1), 38-45.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in best nursing essay writers. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from custom nursing papers.

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