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Bad news business letter

Toyota Motor Corporation

1-4-18 Korakui

Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8701

January 28, 2018

Mr. James Parker

Enterprise car sales

Cranberry Twp, PA

Dear Mr. Parker:

We are happy that your company has surpassed the recent recall successfully. Like most businesses, you have discovered that communication crisis can occur unexpectedly, but with the right plan outline, no mess is too big to concur.

One of the reasons for failure to deliver the Corolla Axio sedan and RAV4 SUVs as you had previously placed an order with us is because Toyota motor had to recall the vehicles almost worldwide due to potentially faulty airbag inflators. Other companies such as Mitsubishi have also had to recall cars over inflators that can explode after prolonged exposure to hot weather conditions.  In the US, several deaths have been linked to the explosion of inflators which has prompted our company global recall.

Although payments for orders cannot be credited towards the earlier purchase prices after the recall, our company is offering other luxury models such as Avalon, Yaris, and Camry within your price range. The models have stylish exteriors, spacious interiors, upgraded features with enough technology and a smooth, responsive ride. The models offer the same class, spaciousness, fuel efficiency, super low emissions and combine technology with luxury and comfort. My company is willing to send representatives to your offices to demonstrate the new models, given a chance. Please grant us the opportunity to prove to you. The company’s head of sales and marketing department will contact you soon for more details.


Margret Yin


Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in nursing research paper writing service California. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from nursing paper writing services Pennsylvania.

Quantitative vs. Qualitative Approach/Data Collection


People with disabilities often face obstructions in accessing essential healthcare services.  One of the critical challenges for people with vision loss is overcoming the barriers to navigating health care facilities such as examination rooms, entrances, and hallways.  Healthcare providers are required to provide and pay for qualified interpreters both for hearing and vision loss when a patient needs to communicate with the healthcare provider efficiently.  The research topic the study will be following is The effectiveness of Medicare accommodations in compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regarding vision and hearing.

Part one- Qualitative research

The research question that is going to guide this study will be:

What is the effectiveness of Medicare accommodations in compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regarding vision and hearing?

Who: a Target population for the study is going to include the American with vision and hearing challenges. The results of this research are going to offer valuable insights to the kind quality of accommodations that have been made in healthcare facilities to ensure they comply with ADA recommendations and enhance their ease of accessing healthcare (O’reilly & Parker, 2013).

What: The focus of this study will be in the examination of the effectiveness of Medicare accommodations in acquiescence with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) when it comes to the Americans experiencing vision and hearing challenges (Lewis, 2015).

Where: the research will be conducted in liaison with the American health care facilities in Illinois as a way of easing access to American with vision and hearing challenges. The focus will be on accessing the population of Americans living with vision and hearing challenges and their perception of the ease of accessing health services in different healthcare organizations. 

How: the study was carried out by conducting interviews with the respondents, who in this case are the healthcare providers and patients living with hearing and vision impairments to assess for their perceptions on the effectiveness of accommodations. The fact that health care is an entitlement to every American implies that even those living with disabilities should access care of the same quality and with ease as their counterparts without disabilities. This assessment of the effectiveness of the established accommodation about ADA recommendations will be vital in assessment for the quality of care received by this population.

Why: people living with disabilities face an assortment of challenges as they seek healthcare services. These barriers faced by this population are against the ADA recommendations whose mission is in ensuring healthcare facilities integrate the needed accommodations to ease the access to services by this population.

When: the research will be conducted in February

Research Method

Qualitative research method design is going to be used collecting data for this study. The rationale for the use of this method is because it is focused on the comprehension of experiences as well as attitudes of the focus population (Lewis, 2015). Through the use of this method, a collection of data on the experiences by patients with hearing and vision disabilities relating to the effectiveness of Medicare accommodations about ADA recommendations will be realized.

Part 2- Quantitative vs. Qualitative Approach

According to Yilmaz, (2013), Qualitative research- Strengths

  • It provides rich and in-depth details since the participants have room to elaborate their points
  • It allows for the consideration of the human factor as participant’ perceptions are considered
  • It is the favored methods for the studies that require detailed understanding
  • Allows examination of events holistically, in their appropriate contexts

According to Yilmaz, (2013), Qualitative research- Weaknesses

  • The methods do not always allow for generalization owing to the small sample size used and the consequent subjective nature of the research
  • It is imperative that conclusions are well balanced
  • It experiences common accusations of unreliability due to differences in results when different population is used

According to Venkatesh, Brown & Bala, (2013), Quantitative research


  • Allows for larger sample sizes that make conclusions ease to generalize
  • Use of statistical methods in the analysis implies that the results obtained are reliable
  • It is appropriate for situations that needed systematic, standardized comparisons 


  • The method does not always explain the full complexity of the human experiences or perceptions
  • While the method offers explanations on the what and to what extent, it fails  to address questions of why or how
  • There is likelihood that the method can give a faulty impression of the homogeneity evident in a sample

Major Research Questions in Qualitative Research

The main focus of qualitative research is on the quality of things, trying to explain nature of things and issues targeted issues, explaining how they are like and how they can be described. It seeks to understand the internal world of the participants, using data that has been generated via the use of interviews, focus groups among others.

Major Research Questions in Quantitative Research

The focus of quantitative research is on explaining the quantity of things, explaining the number of those that are present, and their statistical patterns. On most occasions, it adopts the form of numbers, with numbers and analysis encompassing quantifying to conclude.

Type of Sampling in Qualitative Research

Considering the objective of the qualitative research is in the provision of in-depth understanding of study phenomena, it focuses on criterion-based sampling strategies in reaching the target population. The three main types of sampling methods include:

Purposive sampling whereby participants are selected based on a pre-selected criterion that is based on the research question. Quota sampling is the other type of sampling whereby the participant quotas are present before the sampling procedure. Snowball sampling which is also known as the referral sampling involves a method whereby the participants refer the researcher to others who they believe participate or contribute to the study (Venkatesh, Brown & Bala, 2013),

Type of Sampling in Quantitative Research

The sampling methods used include the probability sampling which focuses on the use of randomization, takes steps to ensure all member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. The other method is non-probability sampling which does not rely on randomization strategy in selecting members (Yilmaz, 2013),

Qualitative Journal Article

The article: “A Qualitative Study of Patients’ Attitudes toward HIV Testing in the Dental Setting” (VanDevanter, Combellick, Hutchinson, Phelan, Malamud, & Shelley, 2012). The article relied on convenience sampling of participants who have been recruited from patients registered for care at NYUCD admission clinics. Data collection was via a patient interview guide that was used to elicit patients believes and attitudes on HIV screening in the dental clinic.

Quantitative Article

The article “A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes of bedside nursing report implementation” Sand‐Jecklin & Sherman, (2014), article relied on a quasi-experimental pre- as well as postimplementation design. Data collection was via a blend of recorded as well as bedside nursing reports to assess for patient and nursing satisfaction; patient falls, medication errors and nursing overtime.

Why Mixed Methods Approach

Use of mixed methods in research encompasses the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data via the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods in one study (McCusker & Gunaydin, 2015). The use of these methods helps bridge gaps presented in the use of either qualitative or quantitative method only because data collected is more comprehensive considering it includes both numbers and narratives. Further, the method serves to resolve the weaknesses presented by the other method in addition to the fact it can add insights that could be missed following the use of on method (Venkatesh, Brown & Bala, 2013).

The mixed method is appropriate when the researcher wants to triangulate the measurement by the use of different measures of a similar concept to offer a better explanation (McCusker & Gunaydin, 2015).

Part 3

On the assessment of the prevailing Universal access to reproductive health, this is one of the millennium development goals by the UN. The target for this period was to achieve 5B universal access to reproductive health by the year 201% (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2015). While there has been significant decline in the number of maternal deaths from the estimated 523, 000 in the year 1990 to 289,000 in the year 2013, the decline rate is less than half of what is expected to achieve the MDG target of three quarter diminution in the mortality ratio between 1990 and 2015 (Canning & Schultz, 2012).

The conclusion from this current situation is that for there to be the needed reduction in the maternal deaths; it is imperative that women have access to good quality reproductive health care along with the effective interventions. In the year 2012, 64% of women between the age of 15 and 49 who were married or in a consensual relationship were using some contraception while 12% desired to stop childbearing but could not use contraception (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2015).

Source: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, (2015).

Source: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, (2015).

Source: Source: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, (2015).


Canning, D., & Schultz, T. P. (2012). The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning. The Lancet380(9837), 165-171.

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice16(4), 473-475.

McCusker, K., & Gunaydin, S. (2015). Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research. Perfusion30(7), 537-542.

Sand‐Jecklin, K., & Sherman, J. (2014). A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of clinical nursing23(19-20), 2854-2863.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). Model-based Estimates and Projections of Family Planning Indicators 2015. New York: United Nations accessed via

VanDevanter, N., Combellick, J., Hutchinson, M. K., Phelan, J., Malamud, D., & Shelley, D. (2012). A qualitative study of patients’ attitudes toward HIV testing in the dental setting. Nursing research and practice2012.

Venkatesh, V., Brown, S. A., & Bala, H. (2013). Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide: Guidelines for conducting mixed methods research in information systems. MIS quarterly37(1).

Yilmaz, K. (2013). Comparison of quantitative and qualitative research traditions: Epistemological, theoretical, and methodological differences. European Journal of Education48(2), 311-325.

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in nursing research paper writing service California. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from nursing paper writing services Pennsylvania.

Critical Commentary #2

Discussion Question

            Do you believe that it’s justified to respond to the plurality of physical body anatomy of a child through surgery only to conform to the gender lines of either male or female? (p.30) 

Speculative answer

            Sharon Preves tries to explore the things that ensue when people from the time of their birth or early adolescence, get bodies whose anatomy fails to give them an easy choice between the gender lines. There are many babies born with sexual ambiguity, and some undergo surgical alteration to reflect the sexual anatomy that is either male or female (p.31). However, the response to the plurality of the physical body anatomy is not justified since there are other factors of consideration, which are usually ignored. It has been established that sex and gender are key principles of daily existence and an interference with the sex and gender norms is a disturbance to social order. As such, people go to great heights to deal with the threats to the norm. However, it is important to understand that, an approximate of one or two cases in every two thousand infants are born with sexually ambiguous anatomy. Other children are born with chromosome, genital, or hormonal features that are intersexed (p.31). Some types of sexual ambiguity are inherited genetically, and others arise from hormonal activity during gestation or due to the medications are taken throughout pregnancy (p.32). As such, there are enough reasons to conclude that sexual ambiguity is not a unique occurrence and that the society should not emphasize on the physical anatomy of the body, to the extent of surgically altering the sexual anatomy to either male or female.

Key points

Intersex (p.31)-It refers to the people born with several variations in the sex characteristics that can be chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals.

Sexual ambiguity (p.32)-It is a type of sex development disorder that is characterized by abnormal genitalia and may have indeterminate phenotypic sex.


Sharon P.E. (2003) Beyond Pink and Blue: Previously published in Intersex and Identity: The      Contented self by Sharon E. Preves.

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in nursing research paper writing service California. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from nursing paper writing services Pennsylvania.

Brain Structure and/or Function That Underlie Psychopathic Behavior

Psychopathy refers to the personality disorder that is associated with the lack remorse coupled with antisocial behavior. Considering the huge societal costs that recidivistic criminal activity associated with the disorder, a better comprehension of the brain functions that underlie the disorder is fundamental to the criminal justice system. Psychopaths encompass individuals who are highly selfish and without emotion and conscience. Experts in the field established that approximately 1% o the general population, as well as 25% of the male offenders in federal correction institutions, falls under the psychopath classification (Kiehl & Buckholtz, 2010).

Studies that relied on psychopath brain scans incarcerated in Wisconsin have established they are characterized by diminished connections between a part of the brain that is associated with empathy and decision making, the ventromedial cortex (vmPFC) and other  parts of the brain (Nickerson, 2014). There was weaker connection between the vmPFC and other parts of the brain including the amygdala which is associated with emotions, fear, and memory. It is believed that interactions between the vmPFC and the amygdale underlie the aspects of emotion regulation, aggression as well as stimulus reinforced associations (Nickerson, 2014).


Overall, the fact that the brain of psychopaths is has been found to be dysfunctional in some parts is the main explanation used to explain their criminality. The fact that these individuals do not have effective control of their emotions, fear as well as aggression and are poor in decision making implies their inclination to criminal tendencies are high (Rice & Harris, 2013). The implication of this is that the rate at which psychopaths become repeat offenders is high because they cannot control their emotions and are mostly inclined to making poor decisions. The assertion, therefore, is that the criminal justice systems will have many run-ins with psychopaths due to their inclination towards violence and poor decision making.


Kiehl, K. A., & Buckholtz, J. W. (2010). Inside the Mind of a Psychopath. Scientific American Mind21(4), 22-29.

Nickerson, S. D. (2014). Brain abnormalities in psychopaths: a meta-analysis. North American Journal of Psychology16(1), 63.

Rice, M. E., & Harris, G. T. (2013). Psychopathy and violent recidivism. Handbook on psychopathy and law, 231-249.

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in nursing research paper writing service California. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from nursing paper writing services Pennsylvania.

What brain factors are influential in causing psychopathy?


Psychopathy originates from the Greek word Psyche that means soul and pathos that means suffering, feeling. Psychopathy demonstrates that the source of disease or behavior is in psyche instead of the situation. Psychopathy is lack of a sense of morality or empathy. It is considered as a personality disorder that is usually characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, remorse, impaired empathy and egotistical traits. Psychopathy is a disorder characterized by behavioral and emotional abnormalities and is present in about 15-20% of criminal offenders. In this paper, we examine the brain factors that influence psychopathy.

Brain factors and psychopathy

Psychopaths usually lack feelings of remorse, guilt, and empathy and also lack fear of punishment, have difficulty regulation emotions, display violent and antisocial behavior, and are impulsive. They can use superficial charm, manipulation, and conning so that to take advantage of other people. A major unique feature displayed by psychopaths is increased reactive aggression (Patrick 2007). Various factors are associated with brain deficits such as injuries. Head injuries tend to be an important source of brain damage. Closed head injuries are more likely to cause damage to the temporal poles and frontal region; thus, the abnormalities are implicated in psychopathic behavior.

The neurobiology of psychopathy tends to be complex, and it involves the interplay between various brain regions and systems. According to Patrick (2007), he states that certain brain deficits are found in antisocial and psychopathic individuals. Study findings from child neurological cases, adult neurological patients, patients with degenerative brain diseases, and head injury studies together with brain imaging studies have concluded that damage to the brain directly contributes to etiology of psychopathic and antisocial behavior.

The damage to the central region of prefrontal cortex does result in poor decision making and sociopathic behavior. Prefrontal context is a brain area that is considered to be essential for reasoning, empathy, attention, social emotions, and inhibition of behavior. The correct functioning of this region and mostly in the procession of social emotions and inhibition is normally viewed as what makes us human. As a result, the dysfunction of such a region can significantly affect function. The dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex and also amygdala region of the brain is usually linked to psychopathic and violent behavior (Koenigs, 2012). These individuals tend to be incapable of acquiring moral and social knowledge when it happens to a child as an adult may be aware of the social norm, but are not able to behave appropriately. There are different ways in which impairment in the prefrontal cortex can predispose to psychopathic behavior. An individual with prefrontal damage may fail to provide an anticipatory autonomic response to the choice options that are risky and can make bad decisions even if they are aware of a more advantageous response option (Patrick 2007). With the damage to the region, the inability to reason and make the appropriate decision in risky situations can contribute to impulsive, poor behavioral control, rule-breaking, lack of realistic goals, and irresponsible behavior that is usually characterized psychopaths (Koenigs, 2012).

The prefrontal abnormalities may also cause a poor fear condition that is found in psychopathic groups. The prefrontal cortex is usually part of the neural circuit that plays a role in fear condition and stress responsivity. According to Patrick (2007), poor conditioning is viewed to be associated with poor conscience development, and those individuals who are less autonomically responsive to the aversive stimuli such as physical punishment and parental verbal punishment in childhood are less susceptible to socializing punishment; hence, disposed to psychopathy. The prefrontal cortex has regions that include the anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

The anterior cingulate cortex is also associated with psychopathy. The anterior cingulate cortex is usually considered as the primary brain area for regulating and motivating behavior through the effective and cognitive mechanism. The activity of this structure is related to several functions that are relevant to psychopathy such as negative effect, pain, empathy, punishment, reward, cognitive control, error detection, and performance monitoring (Blair, 2007). The studies of anterior cingulate cortex show its importance of social and emotional behavior and cingulotomy patient demonstrated reduced motivation, but have greater social inhibition and irritability.

Studies show that ventromedial prefrontal cortex plays the role of connecting the past decisions or the outcomes with a new decision that one may be contemplating (Patrick 2007). It includes the involvement in differentiating past behavior and learning from experience. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex is also involved with assigning a value to a goal or an action of a particular behavior and helps in choosing between different rewards through weighting which is better than the other (Blair, 2007). Both ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex are usually located very close to the brain and have multiple interconnections. With such interconnections, it does allow the regions to acquire inputs on the emotional informational and assign the inputs with reward values. When examining the brain, it contains both white and gray matter. Many processes occur within the gray matter such as movement and speech, and the gray matter tends to communicate with one another through the neuronal fibers. Koenigs, (2012) observed 11% reduction in the prefrontal grey matter volume in a group of people with an antisocial personality disorder when compared to psychiatric and normal control groups. The findings of this study demonstrate that the prefrontal regions and mostly the orbitofrontal cortex tend to be involved in the generation of somatic states.

Studies have also found that the dysfunction in the amygdala is associated with a psychopath. Impaired amygdala functioning tend to affect the ability to form a stimulus-reinforcement association, and it hinders an individual from learning how to associate their actions that are harmful with distress and pain of others. Amygdala is essential for aversive condition and enhancing attention to the emotional stimuli that tend to facilitate empathy for victims (Blair, 2007). According to Raine & Glenn (2008), psychopathy is usually associated with a deficit in aversive conditioning, passive avoidance learning, and fearful facial expression recognition. Raine & Glenn (2008) claim that all of these deficits are associated with lesions to the amygdala. The functional and structural abnormalities in the amygdala are associated with psychopathy. Decreased volume of the amygdala is identified as being associated with psychopathy when processing emotional stimuli, during the social interactive game, fear condition and affect recognition task.

Another brain factor that is influential in psychopathy is parietal cortex. A reduction in the glucose metabolism in left angular gyrus among violent criminals is associated with reduced verbal ability while damage to left angular gyrus is linked to a deficit in arithmetic and reading (Blair, 2007). With such cognitive dysfunction, it can expose to occupational and educational failure that in turn dispose an individual to violence and crime. A main feature of psychopathy is the blunted affect and also the low autonomic activity during social and emotional stressors that well correlated with psychopathy. Patrick (2007) states that functional and structural impairment of the brain in psychopaths can be as a result of abnormal neurodevelopment. With regards to the frontal impairment, it is assumed that the executive and social function demand in late adolescence does put an overload on the late-developing prefrontal cortex and as a result gives rise to lack of inhibitory control over the aggressive and antisocial behavior that tend to reach the maximum expression at the age.


An examination of the topic indicates that certain unavoidable factors may cause an individual to be a psychopath. Such factors include the brain chemicals, disorders, and brain damage that may create problems in an individual. From the examination and analysis of various studies, it is clear that various brain factors cause psychopathy. Research indicates that increase in the prefrontal white matter in deceitful individuals; reduced amygdala volume in violent criminals and reduced prefrontal gram volume are very common to all the factors of psychopathy. Identifying the different brain regions and understanding their connectivity helps in understanding how the brain is influential in causing psychopathy. The brain factors tend to play a major role in contributing to psychopathy and the brain factors such as brain dysfunction of the amygdala, brain injury, and dysfunction of prefrontal cortex cause psychopathy.


Patrick, C.J. (2007) Handbook of Psychopathy. Guilford Press

Koenigs, M (2012). The role of prefrontal cortex in psychopathy. Reviews in the Neurosciences 23(3)

Raine, A & Glenn, A (2008) The neurobiology of psychopathy. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 31, 463-475

Blair, J. (2007) The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and psychopathy. Trends in Cognitive Science 11 (9), 387-392

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in nursing research paper writing service California. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from nursing paper writing services Pennsylvania.

Case Teamwork Turmoil

The main challenge as identified by Brian is the fact that there has been a breakdown in communication that has been occasioned by a host of factors. The communication challenge has made it impossible for the team to work together as additional issues have emerged, further complicating the situation. These issues include the fact that the meetings have become disorganized due to lack of goals; lack of respect has further worsened the relationships while poor ethics have contributed to inefficiency in the team.

From the assessment of these issues, it is evident that there are fundamental leadership factors that have to be addressed. One of there is in ensuring that there is effective leadership in the team, with the main basis being in promoting the interdependence among the members. In this respect, cooperation and ethics will be facilitated thus resolving the prevailing conflicts. The focus should ion ensuring that the team becomes interdependent as they seek to accomplish the same goal. Further, it is essential that the team focuses on dealing with the most complex tasks is advisable for the group since the fact that complex tasks demand a combination of skills will result in the members appreciating each other.

 Knowing that each member can rely on the other to accomplish the needed tasks will be vital in ensuring that the relationship among the members is healthy as they know their success is dependent is linked to each other. Additionally, for these members to effectively resolve the issues they are facing, it is imperative they establish clear task objectives, such as establishing completion times, the direction to be followed as well as the effective articulation of the reason these members need to work together to accomplish the objectives.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate custom writing services Texas. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from research paper writing service Florida services.

Positioning and differentiation

Hospitals must distinctively position themselves to differentiate themselves from competitors to achieve a better market position. For health organizations to maintain customer loyalty and attract new clients, the agencies must provide distinctive services by targeting a market befitting its services.

Northwest Hospital and Howard county general hospital

Northwest hospital utilizes several positioning strategies that differentiate their services to the target market. The hospital’s critical differentiation strategy involves providing multiple outpatient programs that include specialty and emergency services. The numerous outpatient programs ensure customers convenience since they can receive tests and medical procedures without admission. Outpatient procedures are also administered in the shortest time possible.

The organization is time efficient and offers low-cost services that attract many customers. The primary differentiation strategy is the Friesen design that allows directs patient-nurse medical care. The central positioning strategy at the Howard county general hospital is the provision of unbiased health care to the population. The primary differentiation strategy of the hospital is that it has an active geographical barrier with the nearest healthcare facility being more than 15miles from the hospital (Howard County General Hospital, n.d.).

The two healthcare facilities have a substantial physician alignment as their positioning strategy (Healthcare Strategy Group, n.d.). The hospitals enjoy the presence of stable medical staff that mutually benefits each other in the work environment. The hospital’s success can be attributed to the strength of the physician alignment, and an excellent rapport with employees collaborates to improve the quality of service delivery to the patients.  The hospitals integrate care and communication in service delivery to patients. Finally, the in situations provide community services with northwest hospital offering rehabilitative services while Howard county delivers community health education.


Howard County General Hospital. (n.d.). About Us | Howard County General Hospital | Johns Hopkins. Johns Hopkins Medicine, based in Baltimore, Maryland.

Healthcare Strategy Group. (n.d). Client Services – Physician Alignment Services – – Healthcare Strategy Group. Healthcare Strategy Group.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate custom writing services Texas. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from research paper writing service Florida services.

Early childhood

Childhood is a time when changes happen quickly, and the child is growing physically, and also cognitive abilities tend to be developing. During the time, the children usually learn to manipulate and control the environment. In this video, it includes a dad who is serenading his baby daughter, and the reaction of the baby is amazing. The dad is playing the song Dream Lover on his guitar, and the baby smiles up at her dad. While the dad is singing, the baby tries her best to dance along to the music through rocking her hands and knees, and the dad cannot help but giggle as he is singing. At one point, the dad puts his knee on the bed so that to ensure that the baby is safe as he sings. While the two are having their moment, the dad tries his best to make it joyful and pleasant as possible. Throughout the video, the little girl tends to make some very cute choreography, and she bounced on the bed, clasped her hands, giggled babbled, cooed, and even raised her arms up in the air.

Music tends to play a significant role in our culture, as it is evident in the video, the dad uses music as a way to sooth and serenade his child, to express love and joy, interact and also engage. Based on Vygotsky’s theory, he purports that art is a social technique of emotion and a tool of society that brings the most personal and intimate aspects of our being to the circle of social life. As evident in the video, there is much learning that the child is acquiring by actively engaging their worlds with adults. Vygotsky believes that the way a child develops is based on how nurturing happened (Meyers & Berk 2015). The adult normally guides the child in different aspects of development. According to these theorists, cognitive development is not entirely isolated within the child; however, it occurs in part through social interaction (Meyers & Berk 2015). From the video, the theorist can claim that the dance of the child is not just an outward expression of the internal affective status, but as having a communicative and a conceptual content directed towards others and give a form to ways of thinking.

In the video, the baby is less than one year, and one of the milestones achieved is the ability to develop musically. When the dad starts playing the guitar and singing, the child moves closer to listen and start dancing and clapping her hands together, which demonstrate an understanding of the music. The baby demonstrates musical milestone by smiling in response to the song and also moving her legs and arms in response to the sounds for some time.

Every child usually moves at their own pace determined by the combination of the environment and genetics. For a child that is less than one year, the typical behavior with relation to music includes listening and paying attention to rhythmic patterns, babbling in response to music, smiling when they hear music, rocking their body in response to rhythmic sounds, and making eye contact when she hears music being played.  From the video, the response of the child to the music as the dad is singing does reflect the typical behavior for a child of her age.

In this video, it includes a set of 20-month-old quadruplets who are seen to enjoy hugging each other. It is a record of four girls giving each other hugs at their home. The babies can be seen giggling and smiling at each other while they take turns in hugging each other over a period of fewer than two minutes. The video of the baby hugging is one of the best clip to watch as one of the babies can be seen raising both her hands to hug her other sister, and it is amazing.

From the video, the babies seem to express affection for one another. Babies tend to express their affection through kissing, hugging, and patting the love object or a person. In the video, the babies are expressing their affection through hugging one another, and it is a process that goes on until everyone hugs each of the girls. When looking at Erickson, he believes that human develop a healthy personality over life in eight stages. He claims that individuals should develop an identity at every stage. As the children are 20 months old, Erickson would state that the babies are in the autonomy versus shame and doubt stage. As the babies are sisters and have been together for the longest time, they have managed to develop trust in each other and believe that whenever something happens, they have to depend on each other together with their caregiver. The children demonstrate emotional and social development that includes the ability to interact with each other. That involves the growing understanding of her feeling and perception of and reaction to emotions and feelings of others. According to the theorists, these stages of development are essential in the developmental progress of the child because it is connected to her identity and self-esteem and also her actions towards other people (Meyers & Berk 2015).

A major milestone as demonstrated in the children’s age is the ability of the children to realize their abilities and feelings. In the video, the children are expressing their emotions freely and quickly. These children are confident that they can make their own choices and have no one to interfere with how they feel. By the child discovering the she has many skills like hugging or walking, it illustrates the growing sense of independence and autonomy in the child. It is vital that parents should work on allowing children to explore the limits of their abilities by creating an encouraging environment.


For those children within this age, they tend to develop physically and also become more mobile. At this period, these children usually start to assert independence through walking away from their children, choosing what they like and also picking what toy they want to play. As it is displayed in the video, the children are moving along hugging one another while they giggle and it is clear that the parents have given them independence of doing what they want. As the children are encouraged to experiment with their bodies without being shamed or ridiculing, they tend to become more secure and confident in their ability to survive and believe that they are capable of doing more (Meyers & Berk 2015). Based on the stages identified by Erickson, the children reflect the behavior appropriate at this stage of development.

Meyers, A & Berk, L (2015). Infants and children. Pearson

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate custom writing services Texas. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from research paper writing service Florida services.


I agree with Levitt that the act is working towards accomplishing the intended goals. According to Huntoon et al., (2011), more than a year after passage of the PCCACA, there is significant uncertainty about its implementation and implications. In a survey conducted on medical students, a third of the surveyed felt they did not understand the key provisions of the act. The lack of understanding can be attributed to the insufficient or inaccurate education of the general public and medical professionals on the details of the law. Half of the respondents were unsure if the reforms would improve the quality of healthcare.

The perception of quality care may be affected by elements such as insurance and household income. However, two third of the students believed the act would increase access and over half of the participants indicating uncertainty that provisions of the legislation would contain the increasing costs of healthcare. The general findings are consistent with risk expressed among the students that the goals of improving quality, increase the act would adequately achieve access and control cost.

In a study conducted by Kotagal et al. (2014) on the limited impact on health and access to care for 19-25-year-olds following the PPACA, two cohort individuals; young adults (19-25) and adults (26-34) were selected with the young adults being the primary cohort of interest and the adults as the comparison group. The study found that there was an increase in coverage among young adults after implementation of the statute in 2012 without significant changes in the health status.  The study also found that health coverage for young adults did not report improved health status, affordability of care as compared to the adults. Insured young adults also performed better than the uninsured on the metrics of access to care, affordability and healthcare use.


Huntoon, K. M., McCluney, C. J., Scannell, C. A., Wiley, E. A., Bruno, R., Andrews, A., & Gorman, P. (2011). Healthcare reform and the next generation: United States medical student attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. PloS one6(9), e23557.

Kotagal, M., Carle, A. C., Kessler, L. G., & Flum, D. R. (2014). Limited impact on health and access to care for 19-to 25-year-olds following the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. JAMA pediatrics168(11), 1023-1029.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate custom writing services Texas. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from research paper writing service Florida services.

Critical Commentary

Why is it that the author, Lucal Besty feels uncomfortable with the way society has defined gender? Should you, a proud member of the society find the prescription of gender an issue as the author seems to consider it an issue? Her concerns are evident in pg 19 where she asserts that her experiences being a woman who does not prescribe to feminism is a paradox of two and only two gender systems.


Lucal holds the position that the society through its traditions has established a rigid system establishing what men and women can do and cannot do when it comes to their sex. In page 18, she asserts that individuals for any reasons decide not to follow the gender rules run the risk of gender misattribution as well as any other interactional implications that arise from misidentification. She goes further even to wonder what might be the implications of social misattributions on the individual found going against the prescribed gender roles. This can be seen when a female decides to wear a base cap or even ride a bicycle; some people will consider it appropriate while others will be offended by either of the behaviors. Overall, the response to this question will be pegged on one’s inclination towards masculinity and feminism. Those associated with propagation of the two will find the established gender rules appropriate while those not attached to the gender inclinations will not have a problem with one gender doing what is considered exclusively for the other gender.

The Key Points

  • Should we start publicly opposing the gender established rules and regulations?
  • Would the society be the same even after the abolishment of these gender established rules and regulations?

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate custom writing services Texas. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from research paper writing service Florida services.

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