A variety of psychological, biological, religious, and philosophical approaches have striven to define happiness and identify its potential sources. Various research groups have employed the various scientific methods to research questions about what “happiness” is all about and how it might get attained (Seligman, 2004).
The Oxford dictionary defines happiness as an emotional or mental state of well-being, nurtured through positive and pleasant emotions ranging from joy to intense contentment. Happiness is the thought of a good life, freedom from suffering, the feeling of flourishing, well-being, joy, prosperity, and pleasure. The Miriam Webber dictionary defines happiness as the state of well-being and contentment. It is the deep feeling of an entire peacefulness with oneself and immersed in the cloud of joy with everything around us. It is the after feeling accompanied by a job well done. Happy moments are those which come when we do not miss anything. At a dictionary level, a negation of is the denial or the contradiction of something. It is the absence or the presence of something negative to the aimed. Thus, the negation of happiness means the absence of happiness or the presence of unhappiness. The denial of happiness may mean the presence or existence of sadness. The negation of happiness may get attributed to several factors, the most common of which are the absence of peace, denial of something of immediate happiness, torture or anger. Happiness exists when the heart is free from hatred and joy of accomplishment of a task not exempting self-esteem.
The term happiness has several connotations for different people, based on what makes different people happy. As such, the term happiness happens to have a lot of synonyms, as well as synonymous phrases. Some of the most common synonyms of happiness are elation, jubilance, playfulness, ecstasy, gaiety, delight, hilarity, delirium and pleasure. Some of the phrases that sum up to mean happiness are good spirits, good humor, well-being and seventh heaven. The counter happiness terms or unhappiness terms refer to the antonyms to happiness. They include displeasure, gloominess, upset, melancholy, despair or discouragement.
Martin Seligman suggests that happiness is an unwieldy term. To satisfy its meaning, he proposes three distinct routes. Happiness links to positive emotion and pleasure (the pleasant life), the engagement of unique strengths doing productive things (the engaged life) and finding ways to serve and contribute (the meaningful life). He argues that the happy people are those who orient their pursuits towards the three (Seligman, 2004).There erupt the question of what may cause our happiness. Is it all down to our genes? Is it due to external conditions? The answer to this can get narrowed to one three. According to him the causes of happiness are enjoyment that entails having a positive attitude towards every endeavor, at the workplace and around people.
A second cause is engaging, which entails doing something that engages productively. Spending time making our job better makes us feel happy. Third is enduring. That means doing something that lasts, and not that which we put up with. That creates satisfaction and happiness in the short run. Finally, he argues that happiness is a matter of choosing. That means, to create happiness, we ought to be proactive in building elements of enjoyment towards each endeavor. As a fact, happiness is our choice (Seligman, 2004).
Seligman M. (2004). Authentic Happiness: Using a New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential.NY: Simon & Schuster Audio Press
Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in college research paper services. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from best medical essay service.
The main aspect that normally related to the US banks ability to succeed in the bolstering of the economy is in the banks conundrum. The fact that the banking industry has been demonstrating resiliency in the aspect of resolving the past conflicts is the most encouraging fact is relating the ability to support economic growth. The banks have been making the changes that need with the intention of being able to compete in the post-crisis environment. However, the speed at which the US banks can adapt to the evolving business environment is the ultimate evaluation of their strength. The fact that the digital economy that is characterizing the current changes in the economy and mainly on the side of the consumers is the principal determinant of the ability of the banks to enhance the economy.
The desire to undertake business abroad comes with various issues that should address before traveling and making decisions relating to the transactions. The factor to do with the etiquette, as well as the codes of conduct in the country one, is planning on conducting business is critical. Realizing the means of navigating the diverse complexities as well as the risks that could emerge in the transactions is the other fundamental aspect one should familiarize. Undertaking of the business abroad encompasses frequent traveling internationally with the intention of meeting with the prospective clients. The various resources that needed in the effecting of the business could encompass the international resources for traveling which offers the planning when needing to conduct business. The resources help in the providing of the present travel advisories, the required documentation as well as tips relating to the international travel.
Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in college research paper services. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from best medical essay service.
Euthanasia refers to the practice of intentionally letting a person die to relieve them of the pain and suffering they are experiencing. It is critical to grasp the discrepancy between the two major forms of euthanasia that is passive and active euthanasia. The variance between the two primary forms of euthanasia creates controversies in relation to medical ethics. Passive euthanasia defines the act of allowing someone to die by giving way to the disintegration of the person’s organs. On the other hand, active euthanasia refers to the acceleration of death by use of drugs. James Rachels makes an impressive argument for the two forms of euthanasia. The paper takes into consideration the concepts in Rachels argument on the medical ethics and justifies the use of active euthanasia in the medical industry.
Active euthanasia faces criticism from all sides as it gives the doctors mandate similar to God’s or the laws of nature to take the life of another. Others consider it as a form of murder covered with professional cover up. However, people should take into the intent of the practice first before shoving any form of criticism. It is crucial to identify that the intent in both passive and active euthanasia is the same, but the difference emerges in the way of handling the practice. Active euthanasia offers a moral advantage over passive euthanasia based on the following reasons.
Since both forms of euthanasia bear the same intention, it would be better to accelerate the death of the person in suffering to reduce the pain they are experiencing. Passive euthanasia just lets the person die naturally and in the process the patient goes through a lot of pain (Rachels, 2007). As an act of compassion, it would be reasonable to accelerate the inevitable that is, their death. I believe that active euthanasia is preferable if it is possible to compare an act of compassion.
It is also crucial to consider the emotional burden the family, relatives, friends and any other person associated with the patient are going through when they see them suffering due to the disease. If there is no hope of remedy of the situation, it would be pointless to prolong the inevitable. Sure advances in the medicine are forming methods of prolonging life; however, in so doing they are prolonging suffering. Therefore, it is better to accelerate the death of the patient and reduce the period of suffering.
Other than offering the patients and the relatives physical and emotional relief the act of active euthanasia gives the patient or the relative choice. The patients or the family can choose the appropriate time of death. It reduces the burden most doctors have to bear by playing God. The patients should have the right to choose how and if not possible the relatives should, if at all euthanasia is an option (Rachels, 2007). It is the most appropriate form of death for patients suffering from terminal illnesses.
It is imperative to note that euthanasia whether passive or active should be a kind of last resort. Therefore, doctors can only carry out this practice when there is no hope for the patients, and they are going through unnecessary turmoil. Therefore, the states should intervene by providing the fundamental policies and laws to ensure that the practice does not blow out of proportion. Through the collaboration with all stakeholders, the practice of active euthanasia can offer better options for all.
passive and active forms of euthanasia
bear the sane
intentions; however active euthanasia has a moral advantage over passive euthanasia. Therefore, states should legalize active euthanasia
and come up with reasonable and appropriate
measures to control the practice.
Rachels, J. (2007). Active and passive euthanasia. Bioethics: An Introduction to the History, Methods, and Practice, page 64.
Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in college research paper services. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from best medical essay service.
Narrative Therapy is a collaborative and non-pathological form of psychotherapy that views problems and people as separate entities. Proposed by Michael White, the narrative theory assumes that people have the skills, values, commitments and beliefs that can enable them to resolve their problems. Counselors and Therapists use narrative therapy as a strategy for accessing in-depth information about their client. The counselors allow the patient to express himself exhaustively. Counselors listen to their clients as they narrate their stories and in the process look for clues that could explain the problems that the patient is experiencing. Counselors argue that the person is not the problem, but the problem is the problem. Counselors use the stories to assist patients acquire a new sense of meaning and sense about life.
Narrative therapy is an effective form of therapy as it gives the counselor and in-depth analysis of how the client perceives his life. Narrative therapy allows the patient to look into his past, current and future and thus establish the cause of his problem. The counselor can use clues from the story to assist the client to resolve his problems. Secondly, narrative therapy enables the client to participate in the recovery process. Counseling becomes a two-way process that involves discussions between the client and the counselor. Thirdly, narrative therapy gives the client an opportunity to open up about his life to an extent that could not have been possible with other forms of therapy (Payne, 2006). It is by opening up that the client can let go off past disappointments, despair and pain and establish a new focus of life.
Narrative therapy is ideal because it emphasizes in determining the client’s strengths and weaknesses rather than their failure. Clients can realize that despite their problems, they have the potential to improve their lives. Narrative therapy takes a non-blaming approach thus helping clients to realize that they are not responsible for the problems they are experiencing. The non-problematic approach gives clients the hope of a positive outcome. Additionally, the approach allows patients to let go pains and disappointments and understand that they can make a difference in their lives (Bonsmann, 2010).
The main disadvantage of narrative therapy is that the method is fairly new thus its long-term effectiveness is not certain. Narrative therapy enables the patient to acquire an improved perspective on life. However, the counseling profession remains unsure of its effectiveness as a sole therapy method. Patients who undergo narrative therapy may need additional therapeutic interventions e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy so that they could make a complete behavior change. Narrative therapy is also exclusive to individual therapy rather than group or family therapy. The process involves the counselor having a candid discussion with the client prior to finding a lasting solution (Bonsmann, 2010). Narrative therapy may be ineffective for group and family therapies as the counselor treats the group or family as a single unit. However, the unit comprises of individuals with a diversity of perceptions about life thus impossible to focus on specific persons.
narrative approach is a novel therapeutic strategy that enables counselors to
assist their clients by involving them in establishing effective
problem-solving strategies. The approach impacts clients with the belief that
they can change their lives for the better. The approach allows counselors to
help patients to arise from their negativity and acquire a new and positive
approach to life.
Bonsmann, C. (2010). What do clients have to say about therapy?. Counseling Psychology Review, 25(4), 31-45
Payne, M. (2006).Narrative Therapy. SAGE Publishers
Sociology of the Family
The best definition of a family is the affiliation of people by consanguinity, co-residence or attraction. The presence of parents has critical roles in the society both directly and indirectly. One of the fundamental purposes of a family in the society is that it is the primary institution for the socialization of children (Giddens et al., 2000). The family also provides an environment where people get to comprehend religion, values, culture and the society and use these concepts to coping with the outside world (Giddens et al., 2000). The family also gives people identity in the society. The family is also responsible for maintaining the order of the society by imparting good values to children that keep them away from criminal activities. The paper reviews three articles to outline the sociology of family and develop a theoretic perspective of the sociology of marriage.
Review of articles
The bonds between the family members provide a strong social background in the community. However, the concept of the constitution of marriage is controversial in the community. The articles identify that the structure of the families that the expectations and beliefs of the structure of a marriage that were common many years ago are not nearly as common presently. Most communities considered the concept is describing a family as a unit consisting of a father mother and children (Rindfleisch, Burroughs& Denton, 1997). However, the combinations of parents and the norms and beliefs of the society regarding family are abruptly changing. As such different forms of families are emerging all over the world. The articles reveal that the society expects the family to have the both the male and the female figure in the unit as they impart different yet crucial values to the children. As such most stereotypes consider the family as incomplete without the presence of both the father and mother figure (Allen, 1979).
According to the articles, the universal concept of the structure of a family was thrown off balance by the emergence of the LGBT. The presence of the LGBT community undermines the conventional idea of a family constituting a father (male) a mother (female) and children (any sex) (Allen, 1979). The society is currently adjusting to the concept; however, most stereotypes believe that the introduction of this community will disrupt the sacred unit that is marriage. The articles outline that among the common beliefs of these stereotypes is the most referred is the unnatural constitution of such a union (Rindfleisch, Burroughs& Denton, 1997). The stereotypes also believe that gender roles are essential to a family. According to the journals the stereotypes argue that the LGBT community is unnatural. The families from these community input perverse concepts to the children that will lead to the end of the human species (McLanahan& Percheski, 2008).
The articles disclose that the families are a fundamental unit in the community particularly in the maintenance and regulation of discipline in the society. They indicate that the society believes that it is imperative to have a complete family unit constituting the father, mother, and the offspring. As such they discriminate against other forms of families such as single parenthood or same-sex parenting in families. The critics of these forms of families argue using scientific facts stating that these types of marriages produce psychologically deficient children in the society (McLanahan& Percheski, 2008). The critics say that the father is responsible for maintaining discipline in the family and carrying out the hard chores in the family whereas the mother provides the tender touch and emotional support in the family. The articles indicate that the concepts, beliefs, customs and expectations of the society conflict especially due the cultural diversity that leads to the disruption of the current practices. It explains the current shift in the world regarding families.
Functionalism in families
The functionalist perspective dictates that the social units perform several fundamental functions to help sustain social strength and otherwise keep a society working. Therefore, it is crucial to regard the role of the family in the society when discussing the functionalist perspective of sociology in families. As stated earlier the family is the fundamental unit for socializing children. It is important to appreciate that the society could not exist without appropriate socialization of the young. The entire family plays an essential role in imputing critical values to the youth in the community (Giddens et al., 2000). The family also offers the most emotional support to people in the community. As such it ensures the continuity of the society by providing all the essentials to the succeeding age and so on and so forth. The family also controls the sexual activity and reproduction ensuring that the community can sustain its population (Giddens et al., 2000). As such the parents can afford the children all the emotional and practical care, they require. The family also provides the members with the satisfaction of social identity since the children get born and incorporated into the parent’s social standing in the society. These roles of the family provide a steadfast argument on the functionalism concept. The functionalism theory also identifies that the abrupt modifications in the family structure and operations threaten the solidity of the family as well as that of the society (Giddens et al., 2000).
The current trends in the world are creating rapid changes to the structure and processes of the families that are consequently impacting the society. There are very many concepts of the family thanks to increasing interactions between people with diverse cultural backgrounds. Therefore, the world needs to create a common ground that can cushion these changes hence develop stable families. Without a doubt, the stability of the families is fundamental for the upkeep of the society.
Rindfleisch, A., Burroughs, E., & Denton, F. (1997). Family structure, materialism, and compulsive consumption. Journal of consumer research, 312-325.
Allen, W. R. (1979). Class, culture, and family organization: The effects of class and race on family structure in urban America. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 301-313.
McLanahan, S., & Percheski, C. (2008). Family structure and the reproduction of inequalities. Annu. Rev. Sociol, 34, 257-276.
Giddens, A., Duneier, M., Appelbaum, R. P., & Carr, D. (2000). Introduction to sociology. New York: WW Norton.
Consumption of alcohol
The research paper discusses alcohol. It is a compound developed by the fermentation process of yeast sugars and starch. It is a legal drug that people consume alcohol for many reasons. Some believe it has health benefits; others drink alcohol for fun while others consume it to relieve psychological stress. The components of alcohol have a depressing effect on the central nervous system. The consumption of alcohol is widely accepted among all generations today as such making the control of the use difficult task for the respective authorities.
Statement of Problem
The article specifically reviews youth alcoholism. It seeks to comprehend how the surroundings of an individual and alcoholism correlate. If the individual gets exposed to a particular environment would they become alcoholics or would they refrain from alcohol? What is the psychological explanation for the phenomenon?
Compelling factors to Problem Statement
As stated earlier alcohol is a legal drug in almost all states around the globe. More and more individuals are engaging in the consumption of alcohol. The disturbing fact is the increasing number of individuals engaging in the alcoholism. Normally there is an age restriction in every state that prevents a particular age group from consuming alcohol. However, the adolescents are finding ways to access the alcohol. There are numerous impacts of the consumption of alcohol that transcend beyond all ages. These effects range from deteriorating health to unstable social lives. Concerns raised to the public by different interested publics on the topic are a trending issue, with the number of people dying from alcoholism increasing day by day steadily. It is inevitable that people encounter theatrical physical, emotional and lifestyle changes as they course through the developmental stages of life. Studies show that these changes are key risk factors for the consumption of alcohol. Individuals get exposed to alcohol very early in life some as early as the eighth grade. It is, therefore, necessary to comprehend how the surroundings of an individual affect their consumption of alcohol since the drug is readily available. Using the information one can come up with effective strategies to remedy the situation.
Group of Interest in Problem Statement
The major target group of the study will focus on the people an individual interacts with in their life. The paper targets the parents, relatives, peers, colleagues and others that the individual shares an emotional connection within the course of their life. It is mainly because these individuals define the person’s personality, character, and behavioral trends. As stated earlier the experiences of a person pose a risk to alcoholism of the individual. As such these people are important variables in the study. People inherently interact with others daily, and these individuals have a crucial role in the development of a person. It is evident sociology is a critical aspect when discussing alcoholism. It adds on to the study by elaborating on the relationship between the community, a person and alcoholism.
Other Underlying Variables
The study can also utilize the education level of the subjects. It provides room for the development of conclusive results. The project will thoroughly explore the family’s background impact on an individual’s personality and the relation to alcoholism. The study will seek to know the status of the family. Do or did the parents encourage alcohol consumption. Did they take alcohol? What do they say about alcohol? It will also carry out an in-depth analysis of an individual’s friends and peers to determine whether they influence the decisions the person makes. What are their thoughts on alcohol consumption? Do they like alcohol? How many times do they engage in alcohol consumption? The project will explore the daily activities of an individual and the responsibilities and mandates the person has and try to relate them to alcoholism. What kind of work does the individual do? How much effort does the person require to accomplish the task successfully? Does anybody depend on the effort of the job? The project will also carry out an investigation the concepts of the society regarding alcohol. Does the community advocate for or against the uptake of alcohol? If the community allows the uptake of alcohol what is the preferred age limit? What is the limit of alcohol consumption? These questions are part of the entire concept.
There are very many variables to consider for the acquisition of useful results. These variables necessitate the development of several theories for the alternatives in the study. It is critical to determine the age of the interested group. The assumptions in the paper maximize on the fact that interactions between people are not only inherent but also inevitable. The ulterior motive is to understand how the person’s life affects his thoughts on alcohol. Do the events make him want to drink more or abstain from alcohol consumption? As such the study will prove that the surrounding of a person affects his/ her perspective on alcohol consumption. People set beliefs, practices and expectations that serve as guidelines. As such it is important to study the people directly related to the alcoholic. The study may develop valuable information by evaluating these people as they form the largest portion of the individual’s environment.
The preliminary research provides the reader a thorough exploration of the concept of alcoholism. The purpose of this paper is an exploratory review of the relationship between an individual’s social environment and the level of alcohol consumption. It takes into account all the variables in a person’s life and how they influence the level of alcohol intake of the person. It is important to note that the basis of the paper lays on existing information, drawn from public sources and consultations with people engaged in alcoholism in the way or another. The views expressed in the paper primarily reflect simple beliefs and ideas on the concept of the alcohol consumption. The paper builds upon the concept of the learner regarding alcoholism and summarizes the concepts in an orderly manner. It provides a systematic array of the information providing several hypotheses that the project seeks to solve. It is vivid that every concept has very many variables that affect the outcomes as such it is imperative that a project analyze all of them. The ulterior motive of the project spearheads all other actions done in the project. They must all relate to the project in one way or another that is providing useful statistics or data that helps develop a conclusive solution. The paper shows that a large percentage of the population accepts the concept of alcohol consumption. It is also evident that there is a limit to the consumption of alcohol and anything beyond the level is alcoholism.
The preliminary research allows a person to map out the strategies and concepts that he/ she will utilize in the project. It makes the work of the researcher easier particularly when arranging the project and searching for additional information for the project.
What Fuel is most effective?
Fuels are components that store potential energy in them that gets released through the process of combustion. Fuel is the most important thing today since every process depends on fuel. There are many types of fuel in the world as such it is difficult to choose which fuel is most active. Currently, fossil fuels are the largest energy providers across all sectors in the industry. Even though the sources get widely used, they possess detrimental effects on the environment such as the green housing effect.
The research paper tries to determine the most efficient fuel in the world. Every process needs to gauge the fuel efficiency as a critical aspect of the process. As such the effectiveness of different types of fuel may vary depending on the kind of vessel. As stated earlier most of the gadgets use fuel to propel their operations as such in the industrial sector fuel is the most valuable commodity. It is necessary to determine the effectiveness of a fuel due to the reasons stated earlier. The study on the most efficient fuel also assists in the stipulation of the cost of a particular process.
Reason behind Hypotheses
The study of the effectiveness of fuel is necessary for my line of study that is mechanical engineering. It is a discipline in science that applies all the concepts in physics in the manufacturing process. Without a doubt, all the manufacturing processes require a source of energy. The more efficient the source f power, the better the manufacturing process gets. As such it mandates a comprehensive understanding of the different types of fuels and the most effective of them all. The study will provide insight into the manufacturing process particularly fuel economics that relate the cost of fuel to the quality of the operation. It is evident that the most efficient fuel does not entirely mean the quality. It refers to all the variables that ensure that it provides the energy required sufficiently such that there is the maximum production of the product. The ulterior responsibility of the discipline I study for (mechanical engineering) is to deal with the logistics of ambulation and the transfer of power. As such the project not only provides insight on the field but also broadens the perspective on the field of mechanical engineering.
Stakeholders in the Project
The large fuel companies are the subject of interest in the speculation. The large organizations dominate the market for fuels with their products because of the vast resources that are necessary for the production of quality products and also the sophisticated methodology. Every company has different methods of the manufacture of different kinds of fuels and the quality of the products. They use various methods of the purification process, particularly for the fossil fuels. Therefore, the study will carry out an in-depth analysis of the processes in the organizations to determine what makes the difference in the brands. Are there particular procedures, techniques or equipment used to develop the fuel? It is critical to scrutinize the entire production level thoroughly. In the analysis requires the development of a detailed account of the equipment the organizations use as well as chemicals used in the purification process of the fossil fuels. The study seeks to know the specifications for the production of the fuel; whether the fuel got developed for a specific type of machinery. The components of the fuels vary from one company to another. It is; therefore, mandatory that the analysis takes into consideration this aspect. It should evaluate the elements that make the compound and its effectiveness in the production of energy.
Other variables to consider
Fossil fuel is the most popular source of energy for the largest percentage of the industrial manufacturers. Very many industries rely on fossil fuel as it is readily available, and there are well-developed structures to process the fuel. However, what would happen if mankind runs out of fuel. Are there alternative sources of fuel other than fossil fuel? Do these alternatives provide better sources of energy than the current fuels? Other than finding the most effective fuel it is imperative to consider the possibility of running out of the fuel. It creates another broad range of variables making sure that there is a contingency plan for potential failure of the fuel. The world cannot run without an effective source of fuel as such it must find alternatives methods of producing energy. The alternatives should at least offer a considerable source of energy that can effectively propel the processes of the industries. The project also seeks to know what factors would lead to the extinction of the source of energy and methods of sustaining the source of the fuel. All the variables are crucial in obtaining vivid and thorough results.
There are very many sources of energy other than fuels that provide a more appropriate source of energy. For example, the application of nuclear energy as a source of energy is proving to be fruitful as it is environmentally friendly. Therefore, it is imperative that the project considers the sustainability of the environment. It is evident that most of the fuels produce energy through combustion process that releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. These gases have detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, the project should seek to know whether the alternatives offer better options than the fuel. It also seeks to know whether the alternative can effectively substitute the fuel to produce an effective and sustainable source of energy. The effectiveness of the fuel should not lay entirely on the amount of energy or the cost of the fuel but also the level of safety of using the fuel. The fuel should have high rates for all the variables as such making it the most effective fuel.
The paper offers a pragmatic description of the concepts of the project that seeks to determine the most effective fuel. It entails a systematic arrangement of information that justifies the choice of the subject of interest. The arrangement of the questions is mandatory for the development of the concept at hand as such all the details in the paper should get arranged in a manner that clearly depicts the ideas and concepts of the author. It is clear that the selection of the most effective fuel is a wanting subject that entails plenty of details, and it requires plenty of analytical efforts to come up with conclusive results for the project. As such the project should take in all the potential variables that affect the outcome of the results. These variables include the quality of the fuel, the economics of the fuel as well as the sustainability of the fuel. These factors affect the decision made on the most effective fuel. They offer a detailed justification as to why the world should rely on the fuel as the most effective fuel.
CRM at Minitrex
Information systems are crucial for any business as they make the business process to run smoothly without much difficulty (Karimi, J. et al., 2001). They also successively integrate different departments for harmonious working in unison for delivery of desired results. The aim of any enterprise is to put customers in the forefront, and that is the object and aim of Minitrex as well. The improvement of services to clients and, as well as the contact management, is a success via transformations in people and technology. Customer contact by the organizations is now made easier due to the deployment of such technology as contact management system and the customer relationship management (CRM). Through this technology, companies can deliver better services to their customer to have them loyal to the companies.
Exploring the IT perspective
The Customer Contacts System
All contact information of every customer in Minitrex resides in the Customer Contact System. The client contact system interacts with the Management business Center, the General Management System as well as the Credit Management System. The point of contact between the Customer Contact system and the Management Business Center is through the order placement by the client. Before the Customer Contact System receives and archives the customer orders, it must go through the Management Business Center. The Management Business Center handles receiving those details of the client, scrutinizes them and then passes them over to the Customer Contact System. The Customer Contact System also interacts with the General Management system to deliver services and products to customers. The Credit Management System receives completed orders from the Customer Contact System for determination of the debt due to the client.
The Management Business Center System
The information system handles determining the creditworthiness of the customer by examination of the orders placed by the client. It also disseminates general information of the products to the customers. It interacts directly with the Customer Contact System through the orders placed by the customer. The Management Business Center System obtains customer orders and then disseminates those orders to the Customer Contact system. Through the continuous communication with the Customer Contact System, this system updates the customers on their orders’ progress.
The Credit Administration System
The Credit Management System interacts directly only with the Customer Contact Center via the customer orders. It receives the customer orders from the Customer Contact System and determines the amount and mode of payment by the client including invoicing of the customer. The system obtains the customer orders from the Customer Contact system, finds the amount the customer should pay and then gives back the information to the Customer Contact System. The payment information given to the MBC system is for the purpose of contacting the customer that he/she may make arrangements on how to make payments.
The General Management System
As the name suggests, the purpose of this information system is to carry out the management of company products and services. It works hand in hand with the Customer Contact Center to gain knowledge of the services and outputs customers require. It can then learn what goods and services the customers want, and it endeavors to satisfy customer needs by the provision of those products.
- a. How someone at Minitrex can call a customer without knowing it is a customer
All the information systems across the Minitrex do not share the client contact details; or rather they do not access it from the Customer Contact System. That is the reason as to why somebody at Minitrex can make a call to a customer and fail to know that is their customer he/she is calling. The customer details are not in an accessible place by all the systems collaborating to deliver better products and services to the customers. If the details were in an accessible point on all the systems, it would be possible to recognize customers when one is making a call because customer details will display. In light of this factor, the suggestion is that there should be sharing of customer data across the entire information system, or it should be to a central point where all can access. Alternatively, all the systems should have a connection to the Customer contact System, and the customer details should are visible to all the systems.
b. How Minitrex representative can call customer minus knowing it is the third time they call a customer
There is a lack of proper customer records that show the customer status and their history as well as customer activities on the company site. In other words, the client relationship management takes place very poorly in Minitrex. A proper customer relationship management consists of identifying, satisfying, retaining and maximizing the best customers of the firm (Knox et al., 2003). For one from the company to know that they are calling the customer for the third time, there is a need for the client call history record to be in storage. It is this customer call history that will show how many times there was contact with the customer. That call history also should be shareable among all the systems in Minitrex.
- Steps Bettman should take to implement CRM at Minitrex
Step 1: Planning
In this step, Bettman needs to outline the aims and objectives of the CRM as well as the scope of the CRM project. The project goals need to be in line with the general company goals and objectives, its mission and vision. The goals and objectives set should be realistic as the CRM is supposed to be an ongoing and living process (Mishra & Mishra, 2009). There should also be carrying out of the feasibility study to find out if the resources available for the project development are enough and if any is in requirement besides the ones already in hand. It is crucial at this point to determine how the CRM will transform the company and how, including the projections of the benefits that will accrue from the implementation per year. In this case, Bettman should carry out a thorough field study to gain know-how on how the system should better serve the customers.
The other thing to do in this stage is determining how the objectives and goals will have support in terms of features. There should be the determination of the way customers are going to interact with the characteristics of the CRMS. There should be a rough sketch of how that interaction will take place, tracking of the client activities as well as the creation of reports (Ontario.gov, 2013). Another vital element here for Bettman is the selection of the implementation team for the project and their functions. There should be a schedule that shows the milestones of the projects and deliverables of each step.
Step 2: Build and customize.
In this stage, there is building of the system and then delivering the prototype for demonstration of the way the actual system will be working. The Customer Relationship Management System includes some built-in tools that will speed up the building process (Szeghegyi & Langanke, 2007). The step involves setting up a simple initial implementation using the built-in tools in the CRM software, after which it goes to customers for scrutiny. Different users should interact with the partially completed system and give suggestions for improvement if any. What follows then is the inclusion of the users’ suggestions and customization of the software in line with the outlined objectives in the previous step. The system should meet all the functional as well as the non-functional objectives as laid down earlier. The security of data and workflow management is of paramount importance when customizing the system.
Bettman should make sure that the CRM interface is user-friendly and easy to learn even for the novice users. Tabs and items should not litter the interface to the extent that they will confuse the users. Only relevant tabs should be visible on the interface, and they should offer a single click to the user for access to details upon the discretion of the user. There should be the use of different techniques of reporting such as the use of graphs, histograms, tables and lists. Proper security plans for customer data should in provision so that customers will have confidence in the system.
Step 3: System deployment
The step entails there is the installation of the system on the user computers, adding to users and also training the employees on how to use the new system. Load the data from the other information system to this system and then test the system to see if it is working as anticipated. Choose a method of implementation, either direct cutover or parallel implementation where the old system can be still in use while the new one is also in use. It can also have an implementation in phases so that it will be easy for the users to accept the new changes as the training is going on. The users need to be aware of the changes, so communicate early enough to avoid conflicts. All the relevant stakeholders need to have involvement in the deployment of the system including business partners and end-users. After the deployment and training, what should take place is the connection of the CRM to other ISs in the company.
The integration with other systems is indispensable so as to deliver better services to customers by sharing and coordinating relevant data across the entire system (Van Der Blonk, 2003). There should be correct workflow of processes, and the relevant reports should have delivery. Each section of the company should be aware of their functions about the CRM system and proper identification and authorization mechanisms should have enforcement. There should be a clear division of roles and responsibilities for information integrity purposes and accountability of one’s actions. Bettman should encourage adoption of the system after the demonstration of its workability, and he should measure the adoption of the system after it goes live.
Step 4: Maintenance
Implementation is the final stage of the CRM implementation, and this takes place from time to time after the system goes on air. There should be performance tracking of the system to find out the areas that require improvement. Bettman should also monitor the adoption levels and note those areas that need more encouragement and enforcement. There is a necessity to have dialog more often with the user representatives as well as the company management, and this will aid in making proper improvements to the system (Knox et al., 2003). The ideas of the various system users are imperative as it can lead to the tremendous success of the system in terms of increased profits to the company.
Thus, it is clear that with proper implementation of the information systems and creating a better relationship between different systems will beneficial to Minitrex Company. The customer data should have sharing among all the systems that are collaborating to improve customer service (P.E.I Government, n.d). In case the information technology has better amalgamation to business processes then the company will harness high profits and achieve its objectives and vision. Also, for Bettman to successfully implement the CRM system there is a need to follow the steps of implementation closely as outlined above and by so doing success will be sure. The new implementation will improve the current situation at Minitrex Company.
Karimi, J. et al. (2001) Impact of Information Technology Management Practices on Customer Service. Journal of Management Information Systems, 17(4), pp. 125-158.
Mishra, A. & Mishra, D. (2009). Customer relationship management: implementation process perspective. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 6(4).
Ontario.gov (2013). Customer relationship management.
P.E.I Government (n.d). Customer relationship management.
Szeghegyi, A. & Langanke, U. (2007). Investigation of the Possibilities for Interdisciplinary Co-Operation by the Use of Knowledge-based Systems. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 4(2), 63-76.
Van Der Blonk, H. (2003) Writing Case Studies in Information Systems Research. Journal of Information Technology, 18(1), 45-52.
Description of brand concept
Fillauer LLC is a company that designs, manufacturers and also customizes quality products to serve the international and local community. It usually manufactures more than 3200 orthotic and prosthetic products. The new retail brand concept is prosthetics for kids. The new concept will allow amputee children to live a happy life. We believe that children are very tired of having to use prosthetics for grownups, and they want to interact and also live life just like other kids. Therefore, the prosthetic for kids will help children to live a happy life as it automatically connect the kid with a game and also a learning experience. Most amputees tend to use prosthetics for grownups; thus, end up behaving like grownups. Some kids also use prosthetics that they cannot be able to interact when using. Hence, having a prosthetics for kids is a good concept for the company to consider.
Today, there are no specialized prosthetics for kids and the one that are available tend to be boring and designed for adults. Fillauer has been in the market for producing prosthesis for a very long time and discovering this undiscovered market will be a great benefit to the company. With the new prosthetics, children will be able to control the prosthesis in a friendly, playful, and social manner. There will be prosthesis for two different situations. That is, a functional prosthesis for the daily use and a creative and playful prosthesis that the kid can configure based on their needs.
Potential market segment
As a young kid, children tend to be very active and the need to be agile. It tends to be very difficult for disabled children to fit in, and they tend to feel sad. The population of children in North Carolina who needs to use prosthetic is high; therefore, it is essential for the company to focus on this population. There are two categories of children with limb deficiencies. It includes those born with them, i.e. congenital deficiencies and those who acquired them after their birth, i.e. amputation (Murray 2009). The design of the new prosthetics will be for children between the ages of 3 to 11 years. The new concept will make sure that the company can offer the highest level of patient care possible to kids so that they can be able to live life as kids.
Kids usually want to engage in playing and also spending time with their friends and this new product will help kids perform different activities unlike any other prosthesis in the market. We believe the company will be able to secure a large client in this area because the product will allow kids to enjoy being kids even if they are missing a limb. The new concept offers an opportunity for sale because parents do not like seeing their kids unmotivated and sad because of their missing limbs. Since the price will range between $500 to 700, we believe that most parents will be able to afford the prosthesis for their children.
Children tend to react differently to disabilities as compared to adults. For congenital deficiencies, children have no sense of loss, and they have nothing new to adjust. However, kids who lose their limbs because of a disease or trauma unless the amputation occurred when very young tend to sense the loss, and they undergo periods of readjustments. The manner in which children manage the change tends to affect their acceptance of the prosthetic limbs. With the new product in the market, it will put the amputation of kids on a second level. It is a level where children will be enjoying being different. An amputee child would love to have a prosthesis that they can see as a toy, an extension of their ability, and also an element to learn and interact when using. The design of the prosthetics aims at meeting the different needs of being a kid. The benefit towards the children with the prosthetics is that they will feel self-confident and empowered since they will be the cool kids in the class. The prosthetics will enable, children to play, interact, and learn. Children would also want to have a prosthesis that they can interact and play with, something they feel comfortable with, and also something that other people will admire them for having.
It tends to be extremely difficult for children to fit in the society. However, this new concept that the company is considering will enable children to be active and also move and do anything they want just like normal kids. The new retail concept will focus on aim at helping children live a happy and motivated life. It is a market that appears to be unnoticed by companies in this industry; however, we intend to create and produce prosthetic limbs that meet the different needs of children.
Murray, C (2009). Amputation, prosthesis Use, and Phantom Limb pain Springer Science & Business Medi.
Database backup and disaster planning
In most organizations, backup of databases and disaster planning is a quintessential complex and unfamiliar task. The reason is that disasters rarely occur making recovery operations the opposite of routine in the organizations (Retelle, 2008). It is good to make the computer systems and information to be saved and available even if any event may take place that may cause damage or destruction to those resources. It should be a daily routine of the database administrator create backups of important data and information for the company. If the two take place effectively, the organizations will not be afraid even in the event of any disaster because the routine business functions will continue as normal. In this paper, there is an explanation of what the database backup and disaster planning mean for a company and what the organizations should expect if they do not execute them well.
Database backup is one of the essential practices of any company’s database administration. If a database crashes and there is no way to recover the database, the company will face devastating outcomes including loss of data, revenue loss, and customer dissatisfaction (Curtis, 2007). The organizations storing a single or multiple databases, all have one common thing, the need to have backups for their databases so that they would protect their vital data from disaster. Most of the database management systems allow for a full backup by taking the whole database and, saving it as a copy and archiving it in a particular location, either the hard disk or other devices. The database is normally huge in terms of capacity, and the question that we should ask is how one can save for example the whole database worthy 300GB for instance. The space for the database backup is an indispensable factor to look into when it comes to database backup.
Each DBMS has the backup and recovery feature available for the databases. Those DBMS provide restore actions of data through which one can retrieve the old data at the time it is in the requirement (ISACA.org, 2012). Currently, the DBMS allow the users to partially backup and restore such articles as tables, triggers, stored procedures, records within tables, views, and functions. After one chooses the articles, they will have them saved as XML documents for the purposes of reliability and simplicity. There are various types of backups such as full, differential, transactional log, hot and cold backups. Each DBMS has its technique of backing up the data. The kind of backup chosen depends on what data that a company wants to backup as well as the resources available for backing up of that database.
Full database backup is the default and starting point of all the other types of backups available (Seifedine et al., 2010). When one carries out a full database backup, he/she captures the entire database including all transaction logs and entries. It only excludes unallocated extents of the logs. Pages have their reading taking place directly from the disk for the purpose of increasing the speed of the operation. On the other hand, differential backup captures all the data changed from the time of performing a full backup for the database. That type of backup leads to the increase in the speed of operation as well as the restore process. They only involve the capturing of the newly allocated extents and for that reason these types of backups are smaller and faster compared to full backups.
Transactional log backup serially entails the backup of the modifications to the database. It entails the backup of the transactional log that give a history of transactions that occur within the database. Cold backup also takes place when the database is not running, meaning that there are no users logged on. It is sometimes called offline backup, and it can only give a read-consistent copy rather than active transactions. A hot backup in necessary when a database is mission critical, meaning that it runs throughout without stopping, for example, the case of ATMs (Microsoft Corporation, 2012).
A disaster is any event that occurs without warning, and it puts the security of the database at risk. There is no single organization exclude from disasters, and that is why every organization has to have a concrete disaster plan for safety purposes of their vital data. Disaster planning incorporates everybody in the entire organization. They need to have an in-depth knowledge of how to prepare and plan for disasters because they are prone to occur in any company and consequently result in loss of essential data. There should be a formal written plan by the computer response team. The formal written plan helps the entire company to respond efficiently and speedily to a disaster and also minimize damage caused to business assets including data (Gold, 2007).
Disaster can be natural or human because they are unplanned events that lead to loss of data or the damage to computer systems. A disaster plan first begins with selecting a response team and the responsibilities of the team members. A disaster plan entails four phases, and they include prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Prevention of disaster may be the best thing to do, but it is not always possible because there are no signs that a disaster will strike. In disaster planning, prevention involves minimizing the risks posed by the likely agents of the disasters. There is carrying out an inspection of the building, the computer systems, and the surrounding environment and altering of the factors that constitute a potential hazard. Then establish routine housekeeping and maintenance measures to withstand those likely disasters in buildings and surrounding areas. Proper identification and authorization to the access of the computer systems should be in place to guard against human-caused disasters.
In the preparedness phase, the response team prepares a formal written report on the way to respond to the disasters in case they strike and how to carry out recovery. The plan needs to be up-to-date so as to accommodate new disasters that are coming up each day and revise the methods of responding to the emergencies. The equipment needed to in disaster should be well maintained and be kept together depending on the type of disaster for which one is preparing. All the hardware and software facilities need to be maintained in a reliable place away from the company premises. The company employees then need to have training done on them on how to respond to report and respond to disasters in case they strike. He training should cover disaster response techniques and identification as well as marking of necessary hardware and software for priority salvage.
The response phase of disaster planning entails the establishment of emergency procedures for raising the alarm and making the disaster site safe. It includes the tracking of the catastrophe and finding the source of that because it will help in mitigation of such kind of disasters if they are human caused. The leader of the response team should give the direction of the actions to be applicable and how the analysis of the loss posed by the disaster should take place. In the recovery phase, there is an outline of how to restore the situation back to normal. There ought to be in place clear guidelines on how the business functions will have their restoration taking place in the order of their priority. There should also be an outline of how to go and what the response team needs to document regarding the disaster. After the recovery, there should be the analysis taking place to improve on the disaster plan following the experience gained from the catastrophe.
For the purposes of business continuity, there should be proper database backup and disaster planning so as to ensure that there is security in computer systems (Vijayan, 2005). The purpose of carrying out the backup and disaster planning is to ensure that the normal business operations have resumption after a disaster strike. It also ensures that the three aspects of information, that is, confidentiality, availability, and integrity are in provision. For the two have the success that is in the requirement, there should be in place the support by the management. That is because the two require the use of resources whereby if there is no involvement by the management then there will be no success. The two are to be in integration o as to streamline the recovery process in case there is an event that will result in the data loss or damage.
In case there is no disaster planning and backup for any organization, the organization will lose vital data and probably the machines that can be too expensive for the organization. The company will, have to lose many funds in trying to get new software and/or hardware, but in many cases the data will not be recoverable. Having concrete plans to secure data and computer systems is not an option to any business; it is must if at all they put any value on their data and computer systems (Retelle, 2008). The two should also have proper execution, not only planning and not being useable. Improper execution of the backups and planning for any disaster is as good as failure to plan.
It is of paramount importance to backup databases and to carry out disaster planning. The Information Technology Department should liaise with management to have then two taking place so that their data and information will be safe. The backups should in placement in a location that is far from the premises of the company. The backup should be automatic, and it should take place at least daily so as to accommodate new modifications to the databases (Seifedine et al., 2010). Priority is a crucial factor when planning for backups and disaster planning. When backing up and planning for emergency cases usually an essential information and data has highest priority. The new technology should be applicable when executing the two practices the ease of recovery from normal business operations. They should have integration as they have a direct relation to one another and their end point goal is the same.
Curtis, W. (2007). Backup and recovery (1st ed.). O’Reilly media, Inc. , CA: Corwin
Gold, L. (2007) Disaster recovery planning: How do you measure up? Accounting Today, 21 (7), 31-35.
ISACA.org (2012). Database backup and recovery best practices. ISACA journal, 1.
Microsoft Corporation (2012). Backup and restore of the SQL Server databases. SQL Server 2012 Books online.
Retelle, M. (2008) Plan for disaster. Credit Union Magazine, 21(9), 80.
Seifedine K. et al. (2010). A new technique to backup and restore DBMS. International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering. 2(4): 1092-1102
Vijayan, J. (2005) Data security risks missing from disaster recovery plans. Computer World, 39 (41), 16-18.