Author: Janet

 

Personal Beliefs Essay

I aspire to become an experienced information security manager in future with professional skills in a diverse range of security technologies. I would like to specialize in major security software programs such as McAfee, Symantec, and Avira. My bright future will come true through becoming a proficient security manager in software systems such as database management software as well as network monitoring software. In future, I would like to have a strong problem-solving technique in security such as effective handling of security analysis. My professional career is based on proficient securing of programming languages such as C++, Javascript and Python.

My focus is to gain skills through gaining proficiency in C++, Javascript and Python. My intention is ensuring that I have gained enough security information as well as familiarizing with other programming languages. My future career aims are establishing expertise skills that can lead to better and stronger personnel. I would like to grow and develop regarding communication skills and as well as excellent listening skills for enabling effective and efficient security services to different clients. I am focusing on making information security career as one of the major skill by acquiring techniques and skills of analyzing complex systems to determine their security status. My focus understands all tools that are most appropriate for implementation in areas such as performing vulnerability testing, penetration testing as well as weaknesses on the networked systems (Qingxiong, Allen, & Pearson, 2008). My main focus shall be based on determining how systems should work and how any slight attack on security can affect performance and operations of the entire system. I would like to perfect ability to offer training, mentorship as well as offering technical skills to aspiring security professionals.

I would like to gain extra experience, skills, and knowledge in teaching, training, and researching. I intend to particularly help aspiring students and end users who have little experience in computer security technologies to acquire details basics. The major aspects of creating security awareness associated with information processing, transmitting, and storing of data and information (ACM, 2005). I will focus on ensuring effective and efficient ways in which data and information can be broken down, compiled and compressed with effective and efficient methodologies for confirming and verifying security. My major concern in future studies in security is minimizing security errors by improving system security.

Among the major ways and methodologies that shall be implemented to reduce loopholes include training computer users through imparting professional implementation of computer systems as well as security procedures (Albert, 2013). I will focus on reviewing violations of security policies as well as taking steps in preventing violations from being repeated. Among other strategies that shall be facilitated in updating older programs and implement use and update of security software to protect systems from evolving threats effectively. The major technical skills that am focusing to achieve include installing and maintaining firewalls as well as other forms of security hardware and software. I am looking forward acquiring skills in monitoring reports of virus security breaches as well as cyber attacks to effectively implement protective measures.

References

ACM (2005) ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula, Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview Report, April 2005.

Albert C., (2013). Information Security Essentials for IT Managers: Protecting Mission-Critical Systems.

Qingxiong M., Allen C., & Pearson M. (2008) Information security management objectives and practices: a parsimonious framework.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate custom writing services Texas. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from research paper writing service Florida services.

Supervision and Management style

Task-oriented leadership is a behavioral approach in which leaders focus on the tasks that needs to be performed to meet specific goals or to achieve a particular performance standard. In this type of leadership style, the leaders focus on getting the necessary tasks on hand to reach a goal. The leaders are less concerned with the thought of catering to employees and are more concerned with finding sequential solutions required to meet specific targets. Such leaders often define the work and the roles needed and put measures in place, plan, organize and monitor progress within the teams (Spahr, 2015).

A task-oriented leader places heavy emphasis on structure, plans and schedules for getting things done. The leadership style involves continuously defining structure and goals, prioritizing achievement of specific outcomes, rigid programs and requiring employees to set process-oriented goals. Clarity of purpose and precise task definitions are significant strengths of this type of leadership style (Basu, n.d). The leaders organize their staff into groups for specific tasks and ensure that the group members have a clear understanding of their roles. Task-oriented leaders have a strong orientation for completion and deadlines. Such leaders set out work schedules with requirements and deadlines. The leadership style allows following up on tasks to measure progress. This type of leadership style works best where work responsibilities are easily defined and predictable. The technique enables leaders to maintain a high standard of performance. Leaders expect employees to deliver desired results in a limited time and by driving a high task emphasis, the leaders leave employees with little room for an idle chat. The style improves efficiency in production in individual work tasks, for example, employees that struggle with time management tend to function better within guidelines set for them ahead of time.

However, the leadership style decreases motivation of employees since the leader focuses on work instead of providing support and mentoring the employees which are considered as a distraction. Workers tend to feel de-motivated if they think they have no control of any aspect of their jobs which results in lowered job satisfaction. Goal oriented employees tend to feel oppressed in a task-oriented situation. Leaders employ a decisive and direct management style which ignores alternate ideas (Benjamin, n.d). The leaders do not consider the input from employees which means organizations miss opportunities for improvements. Task orientation suppresses employee creativity since they get used to having tasks and responsibilities that are defined for them which results in decreased creative thinking and flexibility. Suppression of the employees’ creativity can restrict them from showing customized care in customer service situations (Kokemuller, n.d).

 Goal oriented employees or academics are likely to favor participation and want their ideas to be taken into consideration. Employee participation in tasks and input in decision making will improve the opportunities for improvements while boosting the creativity and job satisfaction. The leaders should put more emphasis on supporting and mentoring their employees rather than considering it as a distraction. Effective leaders should know when to incorporate task-oriented style with other styles of leadership. In the relationship-oriented style, leaders look out for the welfare of their employees and also provide nurturing environments to maximize their productivity. Leaders can use task-oriented style to define tasks and expectations and the relation oriented style to motivate employees (Basu, n.d).  Strict adherence to schedules ensures that employees adhere to their assigned scheduled and also ensure that they meet established deadlines for projects and services.

References

Basu C. (n.d) The Strengths & Weaknesses of a Task-Oriented Leadership Style

Benjamin T. (n.d) Task-Oriented Leadership Disadvantages.

Kokemuller N. (n.d) The Strengths & Weaknesses of a Task-Oriented Leadership Style. Retrieved from: yourbusiness.azcentral.com/strengths-weaknesses-taskoriented-leadership-style-2519.html

Spahr P. (2015) what is Task-Oriented Leadership? Keeping Detailed Projects on Schedule.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate custom writing services Texas. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from research paper writing service Florida services.

Organizational culture and supervision

The world wildlife fund currently has more than one million members in the U.S alone. The organization serves as a global conservation and is committed to creating a suitable environment that balances the needs of the natural world with those of the human society.  The WWF is an independent organization that is registered under the Swiss law and has employed close to 6,200 full-time staff.  The body has a youth volunteer/internship program that enables committed young people between the ages of 19 and 27 to have a 3-6 month volunteer program in places such as Madagascar and Bolivia (WWF, 2017).

Staff is expected to be assertive when dealing with communities and other affiliates of the body. The organization has a low value of competitiveness. The volunteers are expected to show excellent communication skills, possess the ability to work collaboratively as a team and show genuine interest in working with the organization. The organization has a high value for teamwork and organizes work activities around units instead of individuals, and therefore the staff tends to have a positive relationship with co-workers and the administration.

The organization has a high value of innovation and once selected for the volunteer program; the volunteers are expected to create compelling stories about their experiences and to innovate in their performance of their jobs. Supervision provides a standard against which performance, behavior, and relationship are measured in the event of a problem arising. Adequate control recognizes and addresses the potential issues before they become actual problems and identifying poor performance and working on it. Finally, supervision helps staff and volunteers gain competency and also makes the organization more competent and efficient (Wadud & Nagy, n.d).

References

Wadud E. & Nagy J. (n.d) Section 2. Providing Supervision for Staff and Volunteers.

WWF (2017) WWF Volunteer Internship Programme – what’s it all about?

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate custom writing services Texas. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from research paper writing service Florida services.

Leadership and Personality assessments

Through evaluating my leadership skills using leadership and personality assessment the aspect of emotional intelligence can be fully met by my behavior of considering individuals skills and interests before assigning them various tasks. When workers are upset, I always aspire to understand how they are feeling. Based on requirements of emotional intelligence I always spend time thinking about team morale and always like to work hard as I do following my example. Based on self-awareness assessment criteria I have personal confidentiality in many of activities. I usually have a strong, optimistic approach towards most of the activities. I don’t doubt my ability and potential to succeed. Based on self-management assessment criteria I have a strong background of enjoying planning for the future with the definite long-term and short-term goals. Self-management tools include personal key performance indicators, as well as the set deadlines of accomplishing particular tasks (Mind Tool Content Team, 2016). Another aspect in the evaluation of my leadership qualities based on emotional intelligence is the aspect of social awareness. I always create enough time so that I can learn what people need from me. I always ensure individuals can be successful from what they learn from me. Finally, on social skills, I look forward to considering individual performance rather than team achievements. I lead specific people as well as teams towards gaining appropriate skill, experience, and knowledge. I accomplish the task by ensuring individuals or groups keep doing same tasks and perfecting them.

Among some weaknesses in emotional intelligence include principles of failing to introduce new skills that challenge people but instead I tend to perfect the already existing strategies. I feel threatened when other people challenge me. Most of the times social interactions made me feel upset and worried more often especially in the working place (Mind Tool Content Team, 2016).

Hemisphere Dominance Assessment Approach

The process of evaluating the aspects of hemisphere dominance involves use of creative ways of creating visions for future and providing methods of leading the people towards achieving objectives (Mind Tool Content Team, 2016). I always look for sessions and opportunities for building expert power. I can modify and creatively come up with strategic analysis techniques. I have identified several powerful techniques that can provide a team with insights necessary for achieving specific objectives. I have the potential of using creative stories that can explain visions as well as identifying methods of obtaining ideas.

Jungian Assessment Approach

Jungian Assessment criteria involve the application of family, society and environmental factors Jones & Bartlett (2010). Through Jungian assessment criteria, I can be in a position for providing opportunities for people to interact with one another. Through personal initiatives, I can organize social events that include launching retreats for a team to eat together as a family. I can also prepare for lunch meetings and barbecues for team members to enjoy as a company. Through such environments, people can chat as well as have personal conversations to create close relations with each other (Larry, 1996). I can create a moment for appreciating team through oral communication by appreciating them for the good achievements. Through such communication, teams can be allocated with responsibilities. The session should involve reminding people how they can contribute to success as well as overall objectives of the organization.

I am an extrovert capable of assembling various teams for interaction. Members can take part in various activities such as games. The teams can be involved in exchanging different ideas. The concepts of being together with various teams together can involve sessions of training, bringing teams together to acquire new skills as well as assembling people for workshop. Jungian assessment approach that involves sensing workers participation and operations involves the use of inspirational and motivational operations to make people understand various aspects of operations and convincing people to support their operations (Jones & Bartlett, 2010).

I tend to think that workers should perform their best based on being accountable for various activities that are performed in an organization. The professionalism approach is provided to workers to ensure that workers act professionally. I have a feeling that workers need to have skills that effectively. The process I use to establish individuals, and team’s skills include the use of allocating projects as well as other additional responsibilities that help employees achieve goals and objectives (Mind Tool Content Team, 2016).

Type A and B Personality Indicators

However, my judging perspective is not usually positive oriented. I have no specific methodologies for judging individual workers and teams. I have been associated with aspects of giving workers pressure and stress. Some of the team members have always complained a situation that has led to fear, anger, failure, worries, and distress. For example, based on an evaluation of either type A or type B criteria I am among individuals who rely on stress management techniques. I require enough time for resting relaxing and sleeping. In case of stress issues, I require physical exercises as a method of clearing away pressure, stress as well as getting rid of negative thoughts and feelings on workers. Although some of the issues negatively affect various activities in an organization, I have been in a position of understanding my thinking patterns as well as learning methods of identifying and eliminating negative thinking. As a type A individuals I have a good background of identifying when appropriate to deal with rising matters in the most appropriate way and event.

The VARK Test

As part of being a good learner in leadership, I rely on several methods and methodologies. I ensure I remain current as well as remaining relevant to the organization. The various learning tools and materials applied include the use of the aural committee to facilitate learning of various organization plans visions and objectives through discussions and debates and decision making. However, I have ignored aspects of reading and writing based on the fact that employees have reading communicating and emailing skills. The good leadership originates from good attributes of serving other people a leader must be founded by servants (Larry C & Robert. 2013).

New Enneagram Test

 Based on aspects of new Enneagram test I lack features of being a reformer romantic and adventurers. However, I have characteristics of a helper, motivator, adventurer, skeptic, peacemaker and a leader. I tend taking part in fieldwork I demonstrate various actions and values expected to be performed by teamwork. Features of integrity and trustworthy are among the various features that are involved in dairy work by keeping workers updated under new categories (Jones & Bartlett, 2010). Through new Enneagram test, I always take time to adventure in operations by being in the front line of developing expert power among the workers.

Dynamic Cultural Assessment Approach

I have also progressed positively in the field of dynamic culture leadership and development as a way of understanding various attributes of bringing real diversity, skills, experience, and abilities in providing health leadership. Employees foster a series of dynamic leadership through utilization of benchmarking as well as participating in cultural week activities (Larry, 1996). I have a dynamic approach to various issues and aspects and always ensure workers can operate in any climate environment and situation. Collaboration with international and social affairs within the society is another aspect of ensuring that team members understand local societies and culture. I have a positive approach towards interacting and integrating with members of different classes and categories (Jones & Bartlett, 2010). Communication skills, hospitality and customer services are among the main attributes that we build a leadership style within an organization.

To facilitate effective and efficient diversity approaches I implement a foresight approach on various attributes. The workers are trained on how to implement SWOT analysis in their operations (Jones & Bartlett, 2010). I encourage workers to put their viewpoint aside as they take time to consider and accommodate other members of the organization. Being open-minded and taking a positive approach towards other workers is a way of accommodating each.  Good evaluation criteria in leadership must involve aspects of Listening, Empathy. Healing, Awareness, Persuasion, Conceptualization, Foresight, Stewardship, Commitment to the growth of people and Building community Larry C & Robert K. (2013). Leadership by example is another way of ensuing workers emirate their leaders steps and abide by his or her pace.

References

Jones & Bartlett (2010). Determining your Own Leadership  

Larry C & Robert K. (2013) Good leaders must first become good servants. Character and Servant Leadership: Ten Gifts of a servant leader.

Larry S, (1996) Reflections on Robert K. Greenleaf and servant‐leadership, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 17 Issue: 7, pp.33-35,

Mind Tool Content Team (2016) How Good are Your leadership Skills. Essential skills for excellent career.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate custom writing services Texas. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from research paper writing service Florida services.

Managing resources

Question one

Globalization brings some potential benefits to both international producers and national economies. Globalization provides an incentive for countries to specialize and benefit from the principle of comparative advantage.  The access to larger markets increases the demand for products and firms benefit from economies of scale which results in a reduction in the average production costs. Internationalization enables easier access to cheap raw materials which enables firms to become cost competitive in both the domestic and overseas markets. Finally, globalization leads to increased flows of inward investments between countries which create benefits for recipient countries such as sharing of technology between countries.

Potential disadvantages of globalization include: the over-standardization of products through global branding is a common criticism associated with globalization. A good example is the worldwide use of Microsoft’s Windows operating systems in computers which leads to lack of product diversity as well as presenting barriers to entry for other producers. Globalization increases the risks associated with the interdependence of economies. Since countries become increasingly dependent on each other, a negative economic outcome in one country quickly spreads to other countries, for example, a decrease in vehicle sales in the UK affects the entire Europe since most of the vehicles sold in the UK are imported from the European Union. In the   European Union, countries have a degree of specialization with cause by factors such as labor, and capital but the countries are dependent on each other for products and services such as clothing (Surugiu and Surugiu, 2015). In conclusion, globalization increase power and influence of multinationals since large multinational firms can switch their investments between countries in search of the most favorable regulatory areas.

Globalization is the integration of markets in the global economy that results in an increased connection of the national economies. Globalization is particularly common in financial markets such as the capital and insurance markets, commodity markets such as the oil and the product markets such as motor vehicles.

 Globalization is driven by various development and gradual changes in the international business economy. In general, organizations go global for expanding their markets and increasing their sales and profits (globalization101, n.d). One of the key forces of internationalization is the expansion of communication systems. Some of the important forces behind globalization include:

Advancement of technology is one of the vital factors of globalization. Since the early 90’s, the advancement in telecommunications and information technology has undergone remarkable improvements in access of information and in the increase in economic activities. The advancement in technologies has contributed to the growth of various sectors of the economies in different parts of the world. In addition, the advancement in technology and the improvement in the communication networks have further facilitated the exchange of goods and services, resources and ideas regardless of the geographical location. In this way, the advancement of technology has greatly contributed to economic globalization. The reduction in cross trade barriers in another factor that drive globalization. Each country has laws that restrict the movement of goods and services across its borders. Different countries have imposed different tariffs and quotas on the goods and services that can be imported in the country. Furthermore, the random changes in the regulations create chaos in the global business environment. The random changes in the regulations impose limits on the international business activities. The gradual relief in the cross-border trade restrictions by many countries has however induced free trade which has resulted in increased growth rates of an economy. The increase in consumer demand acts as a driver to facilitate the process of globalization. Over the years, the increase in the levels of income and the standards of living has caused a general increase in the demand for various products by consumers. In the current years, the consumers are aware about the products and services that are available in other countries which have forced most organizations to work with foreign players in order to cater for the needs of their respective domestic markets. Lastly, high competition is a force that bringing about globalization. Every organization strives hard to gain a competitive edge in the market and the frequent increase in competition in the domestic market forces organizations to go global. In other words, different firms penetrate other countries markets for the purpose of selling goods and services in order to expand their market share. The firms export goods in foreign markets where the prices of goods and services are higher compared to their countries. Most organizations have achieved larger global market shares through mergers, strategic alliances and joint ventures.

According to the economics online, the rise of social media has made national boundaries irrelevant as producers use new forms of communication and marketing to target international consumers.  The increasingly widespread use of smart phones has also enabled global shoppers to have easier access to virtual global markets. The rise of new electronic payment systems such as the e-wallets and mobile payment apps has also greatly facilitated the increase in global trade.  Following the collapse of communism, many of the former communist countries opened up to inward investment and global trade.  Over the last 30 years, the ratio of exports and imports to the national income (trade openness) has grown from 25% to around 40% for industrialized economies and from 15% to 60% for emerging economies. The emergence of multinational and transnational companies and the rise in the impact of global brands such as Apple has played a central role in the emergence of globalization. The drive to reduce the tax burden and circumvent regulation has also influenced the establishment of complex international business structures.

The positive impacts of FDI on host countries economic growth depends on factors such as human capital,  trading systems, the extent of openness of the economy, economic and technological factors and the political stability. According to Moura and Forte (2010), the impact of FDI on host countries is subject to a direct relationship with the existing skills of the labor force since if the skills are low, the host country cannot assimilate and copy the knowledge transmitted by multinationals. However, the impact of FDI on the host countries economic growth is divergent.

Question two

Raymond Vernon published a model in 1966 that described internationalization patterns of organizations. Vernon focused on how U.S companies developed into multinational corporations (MNCs) at a time when American firms dominated global trade.  The intent of the international product life cycle (IPLC) was to improve the trade theory beyond the static framework of comparative advantages. The IPLC described an internationalization process whereby a local manufacturer in a developed country begun selling a new technologically advanced product to the upper-class consumers in its home market. The production capabilities would be built locally to stay in close contact with the clients and also to reduce risks and uncertainty. As the demand from consumers in international market increases, production shifts abroad to enable the firms to maximize the economies of scale and to surpass trade barriers. However, as the product matures and becomes more of a commodity, the number of competitors also increases. The increase in competition challenged the innovator of the product in the home market forcing the advanced country to become a key importer or the product. The product is produced either by competitors in developing countries or by foreign-based production facilities if the innovator has developed into a multinational manufacturer (Vernon, 1979). 

When a firm has developed a product successfully, it is introduced into the national and international outlets. To create demand for the product, investments are made concerning consumer awareness and promotion of the product. At the introduction stage, the profits are low, and there are only a few competitors. For example, when the grecotel hotel opened for the first time after renovation, it offered luxury and exemplary services to its guest’s something that came as a   surprise to many since the concept was yet to be established in the Greek market.  The introduction of new services meant that the hotel had to advertise to sell their products as the sales were minimal. At the introduction stage, the organizations are composed of high costs and inefficient production levels and high demand for capital. There are few, or hardly any competitors and the product awareness and knowledge are limited. The demand for the product is also very low.  The marketing efforts that are put in place need to stimulate demand for the product, establish high prices, offer limited product variety and also increase distribution of the product.

  In the growth stage, the demand for the product increases which in turn increases the sales. As a result, the production costs also decrease, and the higher profits are generated (Suttle, n.d).The product, therefore, becomes widely known, and competitors start to enter the market with their versions of the product. In most cases, the competitors offer the product at a lower sales price as compared to the innovator. The innovator company, therefore, has to increase its promotional spending if it has to retain and attract as many customers as possible.

In the maturity stage, the marketing objective is to consolidate the market share and maximize the profits. The exports to markets in advanced countries have increased making it economically possible to start local production. The product design and the production process has become stable, and the foreign direct investments in the production plants have driven the costs down because the labor and transportation costs have decreased. The offshore production facilities serve the local markets and substitute exports from the firm’s home market. The product becomes widely known and is purchased by many. Competition from other firms is intense, and the firm has to remain stable as a market leader. The product is therefore sold at low prices, and the company begins to source for other commercial opportunities such as innovations to the existing product or the production of by-products. At this stage, the consumers are asked to replace their current product with the new one. Since there is fear of the decline of the product, all measures will be put in place to boost the sales (Vernon, 1966). The marketing and promotion costs are also very high at the maturity stage.  At the initial stages of maturity, growth is slow and is accompanied by strong competition and an expanded market. During late maturity, the competition is intense, and the number of competitors has decreased, and the distribution pattern is established. The marketing efforts at the initial maturity stages emphasize on market segmentation, reducing the prices and improving the services and warranty. During late maturity, the marketing efforts encompass competitive pricing and retail distribution of the product.

In the decline stage, the key markets have become saturated, and the innovator’s original comparative advantage with regards to the functional benefits has worn out. The company, therefore, begins to focus on the reduction of the processing costs instead of addition of new product features. As a result, the production process and the product become standardized which enables economies of scale and increases the mobility of the manufacturing operations. The demand for the original product in the home country declines from the arrival of new technologies and other established markets becoming price sensitive. The remaining market left is shared between the competitors who are mainly foreign. MNC therefore internally maximizes the offshore production to low wage counties because it can move capital and technology but not labor. The domestic market move to importing capital intensive products from the low-income counties. Interestingly, the machines that operated the production plants often remain in the countries where the technology was first invented. A good example is the once flourishing Daphnila bay hotel which has continues to offers products that are outdated which have been overshadowed by the new luxury hotels. At the decline stage, the product the hotel offers has to be managed carefully if the proprietor wishes to lengthen the survival of the hotel’s product. The management can endure continued survival of the product through trying to decrease the production costs such as retrenching staff, offering their product at lower prices to attract more guest and by approaching other cheaper markets such as the all inclusive.

A product lifecycle is an important tool that is useful in analyzing and interpreting of market dynamics and also assists business leaders in planning and strategy formulation for their products according to the various stages of the life cycle. In spite of its usefulness, there are key limitations to the concept. The product cycle is a theoretical concept that is difficult to implement in a real-life situation about a specific product.  The concept is not always a reliable indicator of the actual lifespan of as product and adhering to the concept may lead to failure. Finally, the concept is not a certainty and is based on false assumptions (Joseph, n.d).

Question three

The electric paradigm also referred to as the OLI paradigm was put together by john dunning as an improvement of other theories. Dunning’s earlier research focused on American affiliates in the UK and the reasons for their higher productivity compared to their local competitors. He questioned the ability of the firms to compete with indigenous firms and raised questions about the advantages of multinationals as an outcome of their activities abroad (Dunning, 2001). 

The eclectic paradigm has for long been the most influential framework for empirical investigations of the determinants of foreign direct investment. The eclectic paradigm offers a framework to investigate the significance of factors that influence both the initial expansion of multinational companies by foreign production and the growth associated with the activities. The framework provides a comparison between different theories by establishing a common ground between various approaches and also by clarifying the specific questions posed and finally clarify the different levels of analysis. Since the OLI is very general, it has only limited power to explain specific kinds of foreign production or behaviors of certain enterprises unless the framework is applied to a predefined specific context. The framework is context specific, and its configuration is likely to vary across firms or countries.  Its applicability depends on the motivations for FDI. The basic assumption of the eclectic paradigm is that the returns to the FDI can be explained by a set of three factors: the ownership advantages of firms, location factors, and the internalization factor.

Firms must possess certain ownership advantages that are referred to as competitive or monopolistic advantages to compete in a foreign location. The advantages can compensate for additional costs that are associated with setting up and operating abroad. Such costs are however not faced by domestic producers while other advantages may also arise from the nationality of the firm involved. The second condition for international production is that the firm should be better off transferring its advantage within the firm across borders instead of selling it to a third party either via licensing or franchising.

Internalization is the choice between investing abroad and or licensing a firm to exploit the ownership advantages possessed by the licensor,” Dunning (1993). The internationalization of ownership advantages occurs when the international market is not the best platform for transacting intermediate goods and services. Lack of an external market for firms in ownership advantages makes the distinction between internalization and ownership irrelevant. The third condition of the framework is concerned with the location of production. Some of the location advantages include a patent system, tax and exchange rate policies that multinational may either avoid or exploit among others. Although in this framework the location advantages are treated independently from ownership advantages, the decision of where to expand internationally is however not independent of ownership advantages.

It is important to note that institutions affect the capacity of firms to interact and affect the relative transaction and cost of production and innovation. With institutional ownership-specific advantages, the incentives and restrictions created by institutions favor some opportunities while at the same time discouraging others. The institutional advantages force investing firms in planning strategically on how to avoid the limits imposed by domestic laws as well as reap the benefits (Strain and Filippaios, 2008).

The concept of ownership advantage is important to the eclectic paradigm since it draws the line with the internalization theory. According to Dunning (1979), there are two sets of ownership advantages. One, those that result from exclusive access to inputs or markets and two, those that are directly associated with multi-nationality. Dunning argued that the eclectic paradigm is an alternative theory of the international production which pinpoints the essential characteristic of the mainstream ideas. The eclectic paradigm internalization advantages can be attributed to the conditions of improved organizational learning and technology development and not to the conditions for a more cost-efficient established set of transactions (Tolentino, 2001).

An interesting aspect of the eclectic paradigm elements is that they are not independent but interact with each other. For example, the value-added activities brought about by location advantages interact with the ownership advantages. The Interdependence is often misunderstood and with the ownership element creating criticism. However, in the later years, Dunning expanded the ownership advantages to including firm-specific and other advantages such as the ones that occur from engaging in foreign production.

The framework comes from other international business theories which are also influenced by economic and organizational theories. The OLI is drawn from theories of individual firms such as internalization and market power theories and their relationships with markets and integrates the theories with macroeconomic approaches to foreign products such as product life theory (Cantwell and Narula, 2001). The encompassing aspect of the OLI created many criticisms with Dunning responding to the criticism by clarifying that each variable of the OLI was constructed from well known and accepted economic and organizational theories. Dunning further clarified that the objective of the framework was to offer a platform that would help in organizing a methodology that can lead to a better understanding of the various kinds of foreign production.  The internalization theory of FDI involves comparing gains from foreign direct investments and the non-FDI modes of expansion. Critics argue that the non-FDI modes of expansion such as sales and contracts are preferable because of the high costs of decentralization associated with FDI modes such as joint ventures and subsidiaries (Waheed, 1992).

Total words=3038.

Bibliography

Cantwell, J. and Narula, R., 2001. The eclectic paradigm in the global economy. International Journal of the Economics of Business8(2), pp.155-172.

Dunning, J.H. and Lundan, S.M., 2008. Multinational enterprises and the global economy. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Dunning, J.H., 2001. The eclectic (OLI) paradigm of international production: past, present and future. International journal of the economics of business8(2), pp.173-190.

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Joseph C. (n.d) Pros & Cons of a Product Life Cycle.

Moura, R. and Forte, R., 2010. The effects of foreign direct investment on the host country economic growth-theory and empirical evidence. Universidade do Porto

Stoian, C. and Filippaios, F., 2008. Dunning’s eclectic paradigm: A holistic, yet context specific framework for analyzing the determinants of outward FDI: Evidence from international Greek investments. International Business Review17(3), pp.349-367.

Surugiu, M.R. and Surugiu, C., 2015. International Trade, Globalization and Economic Interdependence between European Countries: Implications for Businesses and Marketing Framework. Procedia Economics and Finance32, pp.131-138.

Suttle R. (n.d) Examples of Product Life Cycle Phases.

Tolentino, P.E., 2001. From a theory to a paradigm: Examining the eclectic paradigm as a framework in international economics. International Journal of the Economics of Business8(2), pp.191-209.

Vernon, R., 1966. International investment and international trade in the product cycle. The quarterly journal of economics, pp.190-207.

Vernon, R., 1979. The product cycle hypothesis in a new international environment. Oxford bulletin of economics and statistics41(4), pp.255-267.

Waheed, A., 1992. The internalization theory of foreign direct investment: some empirical evidence. Journal of Multinational Finance Management2(1), pp.75-83.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate custom writing services Texas. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from research paper writing service Florida services.

Environmental Ethics

Introduction
The issue being analyzed is the controversy over the logging in Yellowwood State Forest in Indiana which is considered as an environmental issue. The problem of logging has attracted sharp reactions from various parties who think that the practice has negative consequences to the environment and the ecosystem. The main conflicts involved is logging of trees against the ideals of the State without considering the consequences of the actions. The State Department of Natural Resources sold the rights to log some parts, but there are other interest groups, that sought to derail the process due to illegal marking for logging.
Stakeholders
The major stakeholder groups affected by the issue include the scientists, lawmakers, Anonymous group called Night Owls, Paint and Exterior, Indiana State residents, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Scientists urged the governor to stop the scheduled timber sale since the forest is meant to offer visitors a forest experience similar to how they felt a century ago. The Indiana State residents argue that the land belongs to the state and thus for the public. A group called Night Owls, Paint and Exteriors painted additional trees other than those marked for logging to force the Forestry department to redo the work and thus delay the process. The group cited illegal marking of the trees, and hence did not want the process to proceed as scheduled. The Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR) was at the center of the saga and claimed to have sold the rights of logging parts of the forest after marking about 1730 trees. The DNR argued that it followed the right procedure in marking the trees for logging and that would continue with the process. The Division of forestry argued to have used timber management practices in promoting forest health and that the revenues obtained from timber sales help to fund the department’s efforts of conservation. The positions taken by each group were the major conflicts among the stakeholders. Lawmakers from both sides planned to propose “legislation to provide strict rules for the management of Indiana’s state forests (Hopkins, 2017).” A bill would be proposed to prohibit the DNR from allowing timber management practices within the area. The policy solution to the problem as proposed by the lawmakers is supported by scientists and the residents who find it helpful in preventing the department of natural resources from authorizing logging of some parts of the forest.
Ethical Analysis
The major differences in the ethical frameworks that lead each stakeholder group to support a different alternative lie in the benefits accrued from their practices for the common good of the majority. The stakeholder who supports the practice of logging argues that they follow timber management practices and even benefits from the revenues obtained. On the contrary, the stakeholders against the issue argue that the forest should be preserved as a natural resource since it’s designated as “backcountry” and meant to offer visitors a forest experience.

Part II: Policy Recommendation
I support the policy solution that aims at setting aside 30% of Indiana’s state forests as ‘old forest area’ and also prevent the Department of Natural Resources from conducting timber management practices in the region. The policy can be effective in addressing the problem of increased authorization of logging practices by the Department of Natural Resources to the highest bidders. I support the policy since it aims at benefiting a large part of the population and also causing happiness to the majority. The Indiana State residents, the Night Owls Group, the scientists, and the lawmakers are all in support of such interventions that can protect the existing natural resources in Indiana and especially the forest. As Mill explains it, “when making decisions and acting as a society, there is need to consider what makes the largest amount of people to find happiness and the most positivity and success from the decision of the majority (Mill, 1863).” The concerns raised by the division of Forestry of following forest management practices in authorizing the logging process is valid, but only serves the interest of a small group of people. The vast majorities are unhappy about the practice and demand that the forest is preserved as a natural resource. Based on Mill’s Utilitarianism principle, there is need to focus on the decision that benefits the majority, and in this case is stopping the continued logging in the forest. Other than serving the interests of the majority, the policy ensures that both the environment and the human population benefit.
Another principle applicable to the policy is that of “consistency in moral reasoning that ought to be near the heart of reflection” (Garvey, 99).The principle explains the need for consistency in applying moral principles and also having a moment of reflection in the decisions made. There ought to be equal consideration of all the underlying issues and then apply moral principles in all the circumstances in the same way. Based on the principle, the policy of passing a regulation to protect 30% of the State’s forests includes a consideration of the interests of all the parties involved and finding a solution that does not hurt the environment and also the human population. This principle requires consistency in particular practices and hence would be appropriate to implement the policy in full without favoring some quotas.
The solution is the best one morally speaking since it benefits both the humans and the environment. If there is continued logging in the forest, the health of the forest would be the priority as claimed by the Forest division, but at the same time would be depleting off some natural resources that benefit man. Also, continued logging would not auger well with the scientists, some lawmakers, Indiana residents, and some activist groups who are concerned about the future state of the region. In consideration of all the underlying issues, the policy is a good solution to the problem even from a moral point of view.
I rejected the other alternatives to the solution since they do not seem to serve the interests of all the involved parties and also do not have a moral position. Logging of forest cover for revenues is not a moral issue since there can be other sources of funding to the department. However, logging the forest cover progressively may have irreversible negative impacts on the society and the State at large.
Part III: Personal Reflection
My stance on the issue before I started writing the paper about it was that the Indiana Department of Natural Resources acted in the best interests of ensuring the health of the forest considering that their practices align with the forest management practices. I think that my personal feelings, biases, and attitudes affected my ability to present the different perspectives fairly because they influenced my approach to the issue. On the policy issue, I had to change my perception on the issue to align with the best solution that has a moral basis. I realized that it was challenging to explain some ideas into details since I could not effectively break away from my initial thoughts. The presentation of different perspectives fairly requires neutrality in approaching the issue, but having taken a position before writing the paper, I think that I could argue charitably as expected. In consideration of all the different perspectives, my final position on the issue changed since I acquired relevant and compelling ideas as to why logging should stop at Indiana Yellowwood State Forest. Based on the information gathered on the environmental, ethical principles, my inference, and also the concerns raised by different stakeholders; I had to change my take on the issue completely. My environmental ethic from the past paper helped to influence my final position on the issue since I had comprehensibly read on the ideas raised and also their application. Of interest was the utilitarian principle and consistency in moral reasoning that formed the basis of my discussion and the final position on the issue.

Work Cited
Bishop et al. “Letter to Governor Holcomb from scientists against logging in Yellowwood,”

Bowman and Hopkins, “What We Know: What’s Next for Logging of Yellowwood Forest and $150k Offer to Preserve It.”

Bowman, “Anonymous Group Illegally Marks Trees in Yellowwood in Attempt to Delay Logging.”

Garvey, James. “Climate change and moral outrage.” Human Ecology Review (2010): 96-101.

Hopkins, Emily. “Yellowwood protests:” How lawmakers are taking aim at logging in Indiana forests, 2017. Retrieved on 6th December 2017.

Mill, John Stuart. Utilitarianism. London: Parker, Son and Bourn, 1863.

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in nursing research paper writing service California. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from nursing paper writing services Pennsylvania.

Self Evaluation

There are several topics this semester that interested me most, and among them are the readings about Utilitarianism and the ideas discussed by Kant about respect and dignity. It was very interesting to realize that I may act as if I am protecting someone from being hurt, but when they find out later, they get more hurt since I kept it to myself and never told them. I thought that I would have protected the person, but based on utilitarianism principle, I might be doing a wrong thing. I found this funny, but a reality. Kant explains that lying to others is a way of disrespecting them and taking away dignity from them. I concur with his claim since every person is entitled to know the truth regardless of the consequence. I think that, if we had time, we would discuss more on utilitarianism principle so that I get more ideas on how it is applied in real life.      

One of the ideas I found challenging this semester was that our society needs to be fair to all people and everyone should have same opportunities and rules. I realized that the idea is simple as written in the text, but very challenging to implement in our present-day society. It’s good to propagate fairness and justice, but it’s very challenging to have same opportunities for all because the existing systems are not configured in that manner. I think that the ideas presented in the text apply to an ideal society where every opinion matters, and where no one considers themselves higher than others. However, as it is, there is social stratification, and one either falls under the category of the poor or the rich, which obviously creates divisions and no access to same opportunities. There is a need for radical changes in our society.
I think that a good final essay question for a student in the Ethics course would be: One of the major criticisms of utilitarianism is that it tends to create confusion on what is morally acceptable and what is advantageous or profitable. According to the critic, utilitarian does not have real moral principles, and instead of ruling out something as wrong, the utilitarian focuses on the consequences. If the result is good enough, the utilitarian is ready to use any means even if it is wicked. Is that a very accurate criticism, and how might a utilitarian respond to such an issue?
I think that I set and maintained high standards for me as a student this semester. I managed to be attentive in class and also ensured that I relate well with my instructor by submitting assignments on time and adhering to the guidelines given at the start of the semester. I am confident that I have learned some things I did not know at the start of the semester. However, some habits did not work so well for me. For instance, I am used to partying during weekends, and sometimes I found it affecting my concentration in class at the start of the week. Also, I found some concepts and ideas challenging to understand, but I did not take a step of consulting. If I could re-do this semester, I would try to focus on understanding the concepts that I did not and also asking whenever I am stuck on an issue.
I think that, on the question of lying, the most important aspect in deciding whether or not to lie is my integrity combined with the consequences. I believe that my integrity would not lead me to lie since that would tarnish it. Also, considering the consequences of lying, I would rather avoid it and stand with the truth since it will always set me free. I think that we should never lie in any situation or context. There is no special context that we are entitled to lie since we are bound to live with the consequences.

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in nursing research paper writing service California. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from nursing paper writing services Pennsylvania.

Homework Assignment

Alistair Norcross describes a thought experiment centered on Fred, who tortures puppies to be able to enjoy chocolate. I think that Fred’s behavior is immoral since he has a clear understanding of what he does to the puppies as a form of injustice to them, but yet he does it now and then. He keeps puppies for six months and then butchers then while holding them upside-down and on top of that performs series of mutilations on them without any form of anesthesia. I think that the level of torture and suffering that the puppies go through is not justifiable to warrant Fred only to extract cocoamone from their brain. The puppies do not have to undergo all the pain and suffering only to satisfy one person’s desire of tasting chocolate. Despite the reasons he gives being weighty, the dignity life and respect of puppy’s rights also matter. 
According to Norcross, if we find Fred’s behavior immoral, we are bound to believe that the consumption of factory-farmed meat is also immoral based on similar reasons. I tend to disagree with the statement based on some ideas I have on the issue. I think that me consuming factory-farmed meat is different from Fred’s behavior. He is directly involved in raising and torturing puppies and thus has the ultimate choice of whether to continue or stop and in turn, prevent the suffering of the puppies. However, for my case, I do not have control of what happens for I to get the meat for consumption. Even though I were to stop eating the meat, I would not stop the suffering of the animals involved because other people would still consume them. I understand and realize the level of suffering underwent by the animals for consumers to get the meat. However, my efforts would not save the situation, and I would rather continue taking the meat. If Fred stops extracting cocoamone from puppies, the torturing and suffering stop, but if I stop taking meat, no significant impact on animal suffering is realized. 
Garett Hardin argues that the way to avoid environmental catastrophe has fewer children, and this we should discourage other people from having so many children, which I agree. We are living on a planet where almost every resource is being exploited to its maximum for human existence. It seems as though humans have taken dominance over the entire ecosystem and nothing else matters to us other than our existence, which is regrettable. As Hardin argues, having fewer children can help to avert environmental catastrophe since we will use fewer resources than we do and also avoid exerting pressure on the existing resources. Much of the environmental challenges are results of human activities and increased human population. I think that having fewer children and discouraging others from having so many of them is a measure headed in the positive direction. However, it is not the ultimate solution, but also requires a change of human behavior towards the environment.   
James Garvey argues that consistency is “near the heart of reflection” in moral reasoning (99). Consistency in applying moral principles means having pre-reflection in everyday decisions. It implies giving equal consideration to all the involved issues when deciding to do something and applying moral principles to all people and circumstances in the same way. There is a need for moral connection on all the decisions made about the environment. Consistency is important to moral reasoning since it helps to have decisions and actions that are duly considered and with a clear direction for practice. Consistency ensures that similar actions are taken by all parties to achieve a common goal for the benefit of all parties involved. On the issue of environment, consistency in moral reasoning ensures that decisions are not made to favor humans only, but to serve the interests of both the environment and humans. [WORD COUNT: 642] 

Work Cited
Norcross, Alastair. “Puppies, pigs, and people: Eating meat and marginal cases.” Philosophical Perspectives, 18, Ethics, 2004; 230-245.

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in nursing research paper writing service California. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from nursing paper writing services Pennsylvania.

Interview Analysis Essay

The emphasis that is paid to getting entry into Ivy League schools and the consequent high feels charged is worth for the students attending these schools.
Preview
The preview section is going to address the core issues that inform the contempt, and disgruntled nature people have in their perception of these ivy schools. The discussion will thus focus on the merits of admission into these schools, with the overall consideration being in the assessment of the reasons that these schools are warranted when it comes to the thorough selection. It will additionally explain the reasons that people who decide to pay the exorbitant fees to take their children to these schools have, making it not to be a waste of money. Many people look at the Ivy League schools with contempt due to the high fees charged as well as the complexity of admission with a very small number of applicants who get accepted into the schools.
The interview to be analyzed in this paper will be on “Are Ivy League Colleges worth the Price?” The rationale behind the selection of this interview is based on the fact that both the interviewer and the interviewee present a logical and balanced analysis of the issues involved in the assessment of the questions. The topic is an excellent example of my claim because when the issue of selecting colleges that students attend is a major issue for parents as well as children themselves. Further, with the complexity that is involved in getting into these schools, the question of whether the costs are merited has been informing discussions for many years. Through this interview, the reader is provided with an adequate basis for assessing whether it the costs charged by these ivy schools is warranted and ultimately enlighten them on some of the issues that may have been overlooked. On an individual capacity, my desire to get admission into Harvard, although I did not succeed has been addressed in the interview.
The Concepts

  1. Creation of rapport
    Rapport creation encompasses the use of strategies and interventions that are meant to ensure that the interviewee is made to be at ease. The idea, in this case, is to create an interview tone that promotes helpfulness and friendliness as a way of minimizing any possible barriers to forthright communication. In the case of our interview, the interview made sure that the interviewee was comfortable through the effective introduction and making sure that he felt that this information would be valued. This concept applies to the thesis claim in that the information the interviewee provides is critical to the effective comprehension of the issues involved in the Ivy League college. Thus the inability of the interviewer to establish rapport and consequently make the interviewee comfortable would adversely affect the ability to generate the needed information. The assertion is directly applicable in the general information whereby establishment of rapport is central to the collection of the necessary information from the parties taking part in the dialogue.
  2. Guiding the conversation
    The assertion in this concept is that the interviewee is always sensitive to all the reactions made by the interviewer. In that case, it is imperative that the interviewer ensures that the conversation is directed along paths that elicit the most productive information from the interviewee. In our interview, the core desire is to gather as much information as possible from the interviewee on the issues concerning costs charged by the Ivy League colleges and whether they are worthy. Ensuring that the interviewee effectively addresses the reasons that the cost charged by these colleges is worthy will be vital in ensuring that the audience appreciates the issues involved. From the interview, the interviewer directs the interviewee by asking leading questions as well as open and close-ended questions to ensure that the interviewee provided as much information and clarifications as possible. The concept of guiding the conversation should additionally be adopted in the common communications as it guarantees productivity of these engagements.
  3. Information development
    The assertion, in this case, is the fact that the success of an interview is based on the questions they pose to the interviewee. Through the judicious uses of questions, a skilled interviewer cannot gather the needed information but also ensure that the interviewee is not sidetracked. In the case of our interview, the interviewer chiefly limits herself to asking broad as well as general questions that are meant to avoid limiting the responses provided by the interviewer. The interviewee manages to deliver most of the information on the league schools because the interviewer ensured that he had adequate room to base the responses. In the case of real-life situations, the art of developing information is critical to the success of these discussions as parties engaging in the conversation to get the most out of these discussions.

Conclusion
Overall, the costs people pay to access Ivy League colleges is worthy. The assertion, in this case, is that through the resources and connections established by attending these colleges, the student’s benefits more from attending these colleges compared to those who did not. The core concepts I have used as the main drivers to effective interviews included the ones that seek to develop information, one that guides the information and the one that emphasis on the creation of rapport.

Reference
Tailored scholar (2012). Are Ivy League Colleges worth the Price?”

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in nursing research paper writing service California. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from nursing paper writing services Pennsylvania.

Communication Problems

Existing in a particular group in the society has its challenges. One of major challenge is communication problems. People living in one area have communication barriers which lead to misunderstanding. Navigating through social problems such as diversity of cultural believes ethnic differences and norms from different society’s leads to problems in a social group (John M., 1977). There are different types of social groups and settings which include family, politics, education and economics, religion. The main sources of problems include sources of incomes and pressures from policies used by the government. Other aspects of the society such as culture, deviance, social stratification as well as socialization affect social institutions. The social institution selected in this paper is education (John M., 1977). The problems associated with schools include influence from peer pressure. As a result of peer pressure, many schools tend to select various friends from a particular race, interests and social class leading to racial discrimination.
School as social settings can lead to learning different issues in life children learn issues such as deviance, crime, and punishments (Robert P., 2012). Other immoral behaviors that can be inherited from school include cheating, stealing, fighting and other deviant behaviors. School environment creates a very good environment for practicing various types of behaviors. Schools have been used to spread social inequalities by limiting fair selection and distribution of equalities. Some of the groups such as children in lower classes, women, and minority may be denied opportunity to share equal chances with others (Robert P., 2012). Such issues lead to sexism and racism. Gender and race stratification is also another issue affecting school as the social setting. Boys tend to more favored than girls. Regarding performance, women are denied opportunities involving mathematics and sciences in favor of men.
Literature Review
A social institution is significant in human life in different ways. Schools are used to shape behavior as well as structure the way human life is coordinated among other people within the organization. The interactions experienced in institutions of learning have highest and greater impacts in the society given that students spend most of their life while learning. Much of time is spent interacting with teachers, other students, as well as interacting with materials for learning (John M., 1977). Most common activities practiced in institutions of learning include attending classes that determines punctuality and individual time management. Through adhering to instructions, school rules and regulations helps in preparing students how to respect their leaders, authorities as well as the management of the school. The structure of school rules and order of distribution of power helps students to have good manners in honoring future bosses (John M., 1977). Students are involved in doing homework and other assignments as a way of helping them to become responsible, accountable and reliable in their activities in future.
Institutions of learning prepare students to in different fields of life such as business, economics, and law, nursing and professional careers (Robert P., 2012). However given that institutions of learning are comprised of students from the lower class of families and students from the higher class of families, the expectation in societies and schools give them different results and placements in working class. However, institutions of learning have been acting as major transformation and equalizing factor when it comes to acquisition opportunities in Universities. Institutions of learning give students chances of maintaining higher levels of autonomy based on ways in which individual roles are presented (Robert P., 2012). Individual roles in school settings are highly honored through promoting general and collective methods of bringing equality among students. Institutions of learning have been associated with achieving positive levels of degree among the society. Minority and less unfortunate in society are always provided with chances to excel and change their lives in academic performance.
The standardization of education in various sectors such as private, public and the institutions offering learning services to students with disabilities has guaranteed equality. Through established university program every student with the desire to continue with education has the full potential of joining any institute of higher learning. School as a social environment has been associated with the provision of different prominent as well as professionals to carry out various activities. Schools have been recognized as one of unifying factors where international students and people of different races can meet. The forces of disparities and discrimination have highly been minimized through the establishment of schools.
Theory
Max Weber introduced one of the theories involved in social settings. The theory is known as symbolic interactionism. The theory is based on ways in which individual role can be defined as the separate entity in comparison to promoting union using a symbolic ingredient (George P., 2014). According to the theory of interactionism, social setting is defined by symbolic exchanges which are created and applied to dominate within and outside constant environments (Michael C., & Celene F., 2012). The process of upholding a society involves having a collective approach towards homogeneity. Various meeting institutions such as schools that stress oneness is one of ingredient that enhances the creation of equilibrium especially to members that rely on education as unifying factor. The academic institution has been used as a symbol of unifying factor that facilitates shaping students into members of society who can be relied upon.
Another theory associated with the social institution is the conflict theory. According to conflict theorists believe that presence of inequality, as well as competition within an environment, is the one which leads to social change (Michael C., & Celene F., 2012). Conflict theory explains the inequality and competition as a double-edged sword. The differences encourage people to achieve more despite the differences in economic levels. The resultant of encouraging people to achieve more is the advancement and active development of society (Michael C., & Celene F., 2012). The symbolic interactionist theory guarantees the highest approval. The acts and aspects of interaction rely on the fact that many people learn from each other through interacting within a social setting.
Conclusion
Most of gaps and differences in the society have been bridged through the institution of learning. Introducing elite communities has facilitated equality in the society. Development growth and the invention of better technology have been accomplished through educating society. The institution of learning has been applied to bringing universal existence in the society eliminating racial discrimination, eliminating gender inequality, as well as eliminating poverty among different families. Most of the successful individuals have acquired best traits of interacting from the institution of learning. Career and other professional duties depend on strong foundation build by institutions of learning based on the moral support, ethical issues and conforming to the rules and regulations defined by institutions.

References
George Psathas. (2014) The Interactionist Perspectives of George Herbert Mead and Harvey Sacks.

John Meyer (1977)The Effects of Education as an Institution Author(s):The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 55-77 Published by: The University of Chicago Press.

Michael Carter & Celene Fuller (2012) Symbolic interactionism California State University, Northridge, USA

Robert Prodanciuc (2012) Social Institutions Annals of the University of Petroşani, Economics, 236-243.

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in nursing research paper writing service California. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from nursing paper writing services Pennsylvania.

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