Academic Modifications in Inclusionary and/or Special Classrooms


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Various modifications are to be done in inclusion and/or special classrooms to ensure that the curriculum accommodates the students with special needs. This means that aspects like curriculum planning, classroom environment and assessment processes have to be considered as ways of helping the educator accommodate each student in the classroom. Disabilities as used in the legislation is  a broad term  which  describes a range of conditions ranging  hearing an vision impairment, languages and  speech disorders, learning and intellectual disorders,  physical, and multiple disabilities  and serious  emotional disturbances. The educator adjusts his curriculum in ways which will help in the accommodation of students with all their disabilities.

Emotional and behavioral disorders

Students suffering from psycho pathological disorders have behavioral and emotional disorders. Students with such problems display repetitive and persistent behavior pattern which disrupts the whole classroom. Such behaviors range from aggression towards other students, bullying, physically abusing others, disruption of others property. To counter these behaviors, the educator had to set well established consequences for behavior, and he administers them immediately. Then frequently monitors proper behaviors the    teachers   has also devised a contingency plan for the students with disruptive behaviors which are meant to instill them with appropriate behaviors.

The teacher also respects the student   and considers their condition. The educator praises the students whenever they do good behavior. He also develops a schedule for positive reinforcement.  For those students with emotional disorders the educator keeps on encouraging the students and calling other students to also encourage such students.  The teacher monitors   the self esteem of students and assists them in emotional modification.  The teacher teaches the students with emotional disorders with interpersonal skills and well as self esteem skills. The teacher is a good listener, fair, sensitive and patient to students with behavioral and emotional disorders (Heward, 2006, pp 147).

Physical disabilities, other health impairments

Students with physical disabilities, other health impairments are provided with   special classroom arrangement. This is mainly seen when a students is using wheelchair which requires spacious classroom and a comfortable seat. The students also need assistive devices, medical self-care and lessons modifications. Some assistive devices include tape recorder for those who are unable to read, special pointer, potable racks for reading and acknowledging non verbal communications such as blinking or nodding as forms of responding. Students assessment processes is adjusted in ways which can accommodate their disabilities, for example the use of a fruit which the student can cut into halves to demonstrate his understanding for fractions. The tests and assignments processes should be adjusted in which the students can have enough time to complete them.

Traumatic brain injury

Students who have suffered loss of their cognitive ability are not necessary to be in the classroom the whole day. Their school day is shortened.  They are also given frequent breaks and little class work and assignments.   Instructions curriculum is an also adjusted in a way which complex instructions are broken down into   simplified processes visual cues are provided alongside auditory instructions (Heward, 2006, p. 479). The teachers assist students to have a positive view of their physical conditions and of themselves (Taylor & Kreutzer, 2003, pp 12). Because with such an advice a students is   able to get   inspired to work hard in school and to accomplish the challenges they are going through. The students will, also be able to cope with their conditions when they have positive view of themselves and makes them develop unique talents (Heward, 2006, p. 453).


Heward, W (2006) Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Keller, E. (2005). Strategies for teaching students with motor/orthopedic impairments. Retrieved from

On February 15, 2011

Taylor, L., & Kreutzer, J. (2003). How to talk to children about brain injury. Retrieved, from

On February 15, 2011

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