Aztec Empire


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Aztec Empire refers to a tribute empire that was located in Tenochtitlan. The Aztec empire extended its powers during the late post classic period to different parts like the Mesoamerica. The empire evolved during the 1427 as a “triple alliance between   various cities. That is the Tenochtitlan city, the texcoco city and the Tlacopan city. The three cities came together to defeat the Tepanec state. The state dominated the basin of Mexico before. The Texcoco and the Tlacopan did not have a major role to play in the   alliance as the Tenochtitlan was more powerful than other cities. The alliance was   headed by the Mexican of Tenochtitlan.

The Aztec empire extended its power during the late post classic era using different methods. For instance, the empire extended its power using military conquest to conquer various cities. In addition, the empire extended its powers through trade. The empire did not use military to control the conquered states, but it used friendly leaders in the cities conquered to control the cities. Also, the empire   developed marriage alliances between the ruling families to control the cities. The states conquered were required to pay tribute to the emperor, Huey tlatoani. The emperor used an economic strategy that limited communication and trade in the states. This forced the states to rely on the emperor for luxury goods.

The empire was not able to conquer some cities and this made it difficulty for them to pay tribute. The arrival of the Europeans in 1519 affected the growth of the empire as it slowed. Mr. Younger wants the reader to know this term so as to understand how the Aztec empire was formed. He also wants the reader to understand how the city of Mexico originated. The term Aztec empire is important as it   helps one understand the history of the Aztec empire well (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

2. Quetzalcoatl

This term refers to a Mesoamerican god. The name came from the Nahuatl language. The Quetzalcoatl means a feathered serpent. Most people worshiped the feathered   serpent god during the late pre classic period up to early classic period. Teotihuacán   began as a new religious center in the Mexican highland during the time of Christ. The   religion later spread through out Mesoamerica during the late classic. The term is common among the Aztecs. The Aztecs relate the term to different gods. For instance, they relate the term to the god of wind, Venus, dawn etc. In addition, Quetzalcoatl was considered the patron god of priesthood among the Aztec. They also associated the god   with learning and knowledge. Mr. Younger wants the reader to know this term so as to   understand various religious beliefs among the Aztec people. It helps the reader understand various gods common among the Aztec people and their roles. The term is significant as it talks more about the Aztec religion (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

3. Indulgence

The term refers to forgiveness accorded to a person after committing a past sin. It is   common among the Roman Catholic Mr. young  wants the reader to understand the term so as to be able to  comprehend  how  different religions  differ. For example, it helps one understand the Roman Catholics and their beliefs (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

4. English Civil War

The English civil war refers to a collection of armed conflicts and political machinations between two groups. That is the parliamentarians and the royalists. The English civil war started in 1642 and ended in1651.The first English civil war and the second civil war involved followers of King Charles I and the followers of the long parliament. The third English war involved followers of King Charles the second and followers of the Rump parliament. The first English civil war lasted from 1642 to1646.In addition, the second civil  war lasted from 1648  to 1649.The third civil war lasted from 1649  to 1651.The   English  civil war ended in 1651 after the parliamentary won at the battle of Worcester. Mr. Younger wants one to understand the term so as to be able to understand the English civil war. The term is significant as it helps in understanding the English civil war, people involved and the impact (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

5. Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire refers to a field that was found in central Europe. The field   was headed by a holy roman emperor. The Holy Roman Empire existed for almost one   millennium. The characteristics of the empire changed during the middle Ages and early modern period. This is because the power of the holy roman emperor weakened and the   princes took over power. For instance, the power weakened during the Habsburg rule. During the last centuries, the character of the Holy Roman Empire became close to a   loose collection of territories. Mr. Young wants one to know the term so as to understand the history of the Holy Roman Empire. Hence, the term is important in understanding the history (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

6. Encomienda

The Encomienda refers to a labor system that was used by the Spanish rulers when they colonized the Americans. In this case, the Amerindians are granted permission over a particular population .It provides the person granted permission with cheap labor and supply of goods. Mr. Younger wants the reader to understand the term so as to be able to comprehend the labor system used by the Spanish. The term is important as it gives detailed information about the labor system (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

7. Chartered companies

Chartered companies are associations that are formed by various groups like investors and shareholders. There are various reasons why people form associations. For instance, people form associations to be used in trade. They also form associations for explorations   and also to colonize other people. Mr. Younger wants one to understand chartered companies so as to understand how colonial alliances, trade alliances and exploration   alliances are formed. This term is important in history as it helps the reader understand how different colonial groups work (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

8. Plantocracy

A Plantocracy refers to a ruling class, political order and government that consist of   plantation owners. Most of the European colonies were composed of plantocracies. The   colonies consisted of European settlers who relied on West African slaves. It also consisted of slaves from other parts of the world like Europe. One should know the term   because it helps him understand how the ruling class and government in most parts of the   world were formed. Hence, the reason Mr. younger wants one to understand the term. The term is important in history as it helps the learner understand how different political class and governments were formed (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

9. Conquistadors

This term refers Conquistador is term that is commonly used on different parts of the country. The term is used to refer to Spanish soldiers and Portuguese soldiers, explorers   and adventurers. The soldiers, explorers   brought America in to the control of Spain and Portugal during the 15th and 19th century. This was after the discovery of the new world. The term helps the reader understand the exploration of different parts of the world. Hence, Mr.  Younger wants the reader to understand it. The term is important as it helps historian understand exploration (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

10. Fratricide

Refers to the process of a person killing his or her brother. The killing of a person by his brother and sister has become common in history. The term has been applied in different   civilizations and religions to imply the start of history. Mr. Younger wants the reader to   understand the term so as to be able to understand how different civilizations worked. The term is crucial in history as it show the beginning of history (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

11. Mercantilism

Mercantilism refers to economic theory. The theory assumes that the success of a   nation depends on capital supply. It also believes that the global volume of the international trade cannot be changed. In this case, one person benefits at the expense of another. The economic assets during the mercantilist period were represented by various things. That is gold, silver etc. Mercantilism is common in history and in many empires. For instance, it is common in the Aztec empire. Mr. Younger wants the reader to know the term so as to be able to comprehend trade in different empires. The term is significant as it shows trade in different countries and empires (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

12. Purdah

Purdah is used to describe the pre colonial period. The term is most common in United Kingdom. The term refers to the period between the announcement of election and the release of the final results. The term is used in history to describe political conditions in different empires and countries. One should know the term so as to understand politics   in different empires and countries. Thus, the reason, Mr.Younger wants one to be familiar with the term. The term is vital in history as it explains politics in different empires (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

13. Caliph

This term refers to a leader of state in caliphate. It is also used to refer to an Islamic   leader. The term helps one understand the history of Muslim nations. Mr. Younger wants the reader to be familiar with the term so as to be able to understand the history of the Muslim countries (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

14. Constantinople

This term refers to the capital of the Roman Empire. It also refers to the capital of the   Ottoman Empire, Byzantine empir and the Latin empire. The capital was the largest and wealthiest city in the whole of Europe. The capital was later dropped in 1930.This is because the capital changed to Instable. The term is important as it helps one understand the history of the Ottoman Empire and the Roman Empire. Hence, the reason why Mr. younger wants the reader to understand the term (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

15. Safavid Empire

Safavid Empire refers to the Iran Empire. At first, the Ottoman Empire was the most   powerful empire in the Islamic region, but later the Safavid Empire in Persia was   established. The empire was created by Ismail in 1501.The empire lasted for few years   until it was overthrown by Afghan  attackers in 1722.The empire is considered one of the   short lived great  empires in the Islamic region. The most common religion in the   empire was Shia Islam. The Safavid Empire was formed differently from other empires like ottoman and Mughal.  This is because it started from religious grounds, but not   military grounds. The Safavid Empire is important in history as it helps one know more about the Islamic empires and their creation. Thus, Mr. Younger encourages the reader to understand it (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

16. Atlantic circuit or system

An Atlantic circuit refers to the route used by adventures and explorers touring the Atlantic and other parts. The explorers used the routes to connect different regions like Europe, Africa and America. This term helps the reader understand the exploration of the west and also Atlantic slave trade in history. Hence, Mr.Younger helps one understand the term as it is important in history (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).


Section 2


The maritime exploration influenced the west a lot. For instance, it resulted to economic, social and political change in the west. For instance, it resulted to expansion of commercial connections in the west. The exploration of the maritime led to the opening of new long distance trade routes in the world. The routes were opened in three main   oceans and this established constant among different continents. This facilitated trade in different parts of the world and led to economic growth in the west. Additionally, the   maritime exploration led to growth of the west in terms of politics. The exploration led to   expansion of connection between different countries and this in turn made it easy for countries to increase their political base. For instance, political powers were able to access various countries   like Africa and Europe. At first, the expansion of Europe was impossible, but after the maritime exploration, the rulers were able to expand to other countries. In addition, the maritime exploration allowed the interaction of various cultures and this resulted to economic and political developments (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

The maritime exploration was motivated by various things. First, the maritime   exploration was motivated by trade. Most of the countries were interested to participate   in trade like Atlantic slave trade and this led to exploration so as to develop the Atlantic circuit. In addition, the exploration was motivated by imperial powers as countries wanted to become more powerful. The maritime exploration had adverse effects like   slave trade which resulted to deaths and affected societal values. It also resulted to transfer of diseases from one part to another and hence deaths (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).


Resonance and reformation intertwined each other during the 15th to 18th century. The two movements contributed a lot in Europe. Renaissance refers to a cultural movement   found in Europe between 14th century and the 17th century. The cultural movement   involved various things like painting, education reforms. It also resulted to intellectual   transformation. Reformation and renaissance contributed in different ways in Europe. Renaissance and reformation were intertwined. This is because most people in Europe used their traditions and cultures to bring reforms in the church. For instance, some leaders like Luther believed that some of the traditions practiced by the church were not ethical. Luther argued that Christians could not show their faith by offering goods, but by worshipping. This forced him to change belief among the Protestants and the Catholics. The Catholics did not feel offering goods were bad and they continued to do.

Mot people in Europe used their knowedge to transform the country especially the church. For instance, the Greco Roman writings and the bible were used to bring change. The renaissance helped in transformation as it recovered various manuscripts written by old writers. The manuscripts were printed and distributed in the country. For instance renaissance found scientific works that forced scientists and other researchers in   Europe to carry out research to oppose the claims in the manuscript. For instance, Galileo tried to study the universe and provided a report on the universe. Most people did not agree with his findings like Protestants. They argued that the findings from the book were not similar to Gods teaching on the universe. This forced Galileo to distribute his work to different parts.

Most scholars in Europe like Robert Boyle adapted the   findings. Other people established the enlightenment movement to apply scientific methods to political, social and economic organizations in the society. However, this movement faced opposition from various people. For instance, they faced religious warfare etc. The scientific findings resulted to change in Europe as people were able to change the political, economic and social organizations. Reformation also contributed a lot to renaissance. This is because the need to reform Europe lead to development of various   movements and use of intellectual reformation to bring change. The growth in artistic and intellectual activity in Europe changed the thinking of the enlightment movement and this made it easy to bring change to Europe.

In addition, the Catholic Church used artistic   expression during the early reformation. The Catholic Church built 54 churches and   buildings in Rome. This showed how the church was powerful and the artistic   renaissance in the country. The catholic traditions resulted to protestant reformation as Protestants objected their practices. They objected the raising of funds, power and corruption. Hence, renaissance and reformation were intertwined (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).


There are various doctrinal and political issues that resulted to the protestant reformation. First, collection of funds for use in the basilica and project development in the Catholic Church led to protestant reformations. The catholic pope, Leo X raised funds for use in the basilica and development of a series of project. Most of the Protestants like Luther did not agree with the idea. In addition, the Protestants rejected the practice of indulgence. The Catholics supported  selling of indulgence as it  was  ethical  according to their traditions .On the other  hand,  the  protestants saw the practice abusive and indecent. For example, Luther did not support the practice. He preferred to commit himself to prayer and self denial instead of collecting money and getting married.

Luther argued that salvation resulted from religious faith, but not doing things like raising funds. This forced Luther to reject the practice of giving money to the church instead of emphasizing on   faith. The Catholic Church did not support the criticism made by the Protestants as they claimed the practices are part of its teaching. For instance, Pope Leo did not accept Luthers letter and argued that it was a challenge to papal power. In 1519,   representatives from the papal forced Luther into an open disagreement. The representatives explained the church doctrines to Luther and condemned him. Later Luther established the protestant reformation because he was not able to bring change to the Catholic Church. Moreover, Luther and other Protestants rejected the powers given to the pope. He argued   that Christians briefs should be based on the bible and traditions, but not power. The corruption and the ostentation in the Catholic Church led the protestant reformation. The Protestants argued that the Catholic Church was involved in massive corruption due to   practices that are not governed by the bible (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).


The modern England and France had different and similar political situations. First, the monarch of modern England and France faced conflicts from different countries. Different countries in the region opposed their monarchy and this resulted to political conflicts. In addition, the monarch of England and France faced religious issues. The    different religions in the two countries conflicted due to difference in opinion .Though the monarch of England and France are similar; they are also different in some ways. First, the two countries differ in terms of constitutional outcome and the government. In England the government structure consisted of the king and the parliament.

The king Charles I had more powers than the parliament. This is evidenced by King Charles I who ruled for 11 years without summoning the parliament and the representatives. King Charles I was not aware of new taxes in the country and he raised money by persuading   loans from rich people in the country. He also raised money using tax laws that had already been established. The king was forced by a rebellion in Scotland to summon the parliament so as to approve new tax laws to help pay for the military. King Charles I did not involve the parliament   in his leadership and this lead to disagreement between the king and the parliamentarians claims before approving the new laws. They argued that the king should recognize them and involve them in leading the country. The king refused to reassure the parliamentarians and this resulted to English civil war. After the military defeat in 1648, the parliament was forced to replace the monarchy.

The parliament selected Oliver Cromwell who led the monarchy until he died in 1658.The new leader was not wiling to share his power with the parliament like King Charles I. Most of the leaders in the monarchy of England did not respect the parliament as evidenced by James II. Like other leaders in the country, James II did not respect the parliament and he was forced to exile. In addition, failure to respect the parliament forced the parliament to amend the constitution to allow the king to call the parliament often to amend any laws (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

Another similarity between the modern England and France is that they had estates general. In France and England, the estates general symbolized the traditional rights of the clergy, town and the nobility. In this case, the estates general were allowed to demand its rights during the religious war in French. This is because the monarchy was weak. In France, the monarch ruled without calling into session and used various methods to avoid crisis. For instance, the collected taxes and sold appointments to top officials in the government. Hence, the monarchy in France and the government in France was similar and different to the government and monarchy in England (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).


The Columbia exchange refers to the transfer of various things between the old and the   new world. The world transferred people, animals, pants and diseases. The invasion of   Europe and settlement in the western part resulted to transfer of biological things and technology that changed America.The transfer of different epidemics from the old world to the new world had devastating effects in the new  world. This is because people in the new word had no immunity to the diseases. This in turn resulted to increase in deaths among the Amerindian people. The old world diseases introduced during the colonial period had adverse effects on the natives. For instance, the population in central Mexico reduced from13 million to almost 700,000 as the natives were unable to fight the diseases.

During this period, the number of people in Maya and Inca reduced by more than 75%.In addition, like other countries, Brazil experienced a sharp decline in its population. The population reduced by almost 50% during the arrival of the portuegees. There are various diseases that were spread   from the old world to the new world. Examples of the epidemics that were transmitted include smallpox, measles etc. Smallpox arrived in Caribbean in 1518 and it had negative effects. For instance, in Mexico and Central America the disease claimed 50% of the   population. Later the disease spread to North America and caused a high death rate in the   region. The second, disease to be transmitted was measles which was transmitted in 1530s followed by other diseases like influenza and typhus. Influenza attacked natives   in Cakchiquel of Guatemala from 1520 to 1521.Malaria and yellow fever arrived in   America in mid 17th century and they had adverse effects on the natives as they caused   deaths (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

Apart from the transfer of diseases, there is transfer of plants and animals. The transfer of plants and animals from the old world to the new world changed the lifestyles and diet in the areas. For example, settlers from southern Europe brought food from the region to America. For example, they brought wheat, olives and vegetables. In addition, colonization led to transfer of African foods and Asian foods to other parts of the world. For example, it led to the transfer of crops like rice, coconut and sugar. Though most of the natives remained splendid to their foods, they also used the new foods.

Moreover, the   Americans used food from different parts of the word like Europe and Africa. The transfers ensured the society had adequate supply of food. This in turn led to increase in population. This is because the new foods supplied had more nutrients than the old foods. Further, the new world provided plants that produced medicine and dyes. The   introduction of livestock from Europe also changed the new world and culture. It led to increase in number of animals in areas like Brazil and Argentina. In addition, the increase in livestock had environmental impact as it led to destruction of the environment. Most   people in the regions turned to shepherds. The horses changed the culture of the natives. This is because it improved the effectiveness of the hunters and the capability of the   military (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).


Europeans, Americans and Africans participated in the Atlantic slave trade. The groups   played different roles during the Atlantic slave trade. First, the Africans sold slaves to other groups like the Europeans and the Americans. The African transported slaves using the Atlantic circuit or system. Like Africans, the Europeans participated a lot in the Atlantic slave trade. The Europeans transported goods to different parts of the world like Africa and Europe. Then the Europeans got slaves in exchange. In addition, the   Americans transported goods to different areas like Europe and Africa. The Atlantic   slave trade was like a triangle with the three group playing different roles. The main idea behind the slave trade was cheap labor.

The Europeans and Americans participated in the slave trade to get free labor. In addition, the Africans participated in the slave trade to get   other goods in exchange of the slaves. The Atlantic slave trade had consequences on Africans, Europeans and Americans. In Africa, the Atlantic slave trade led to loose of life. This is because most of the slaves arrived dead. It also led to colonization of Africa   by European countries. It also led to increase in prices of goods in the three countries. The countries increased the prices of goods as their demand increased .For instance, the slave trade led to increase in demand of slaves and the cost of the goods supplied.

The Atlantic slave trade affected the social and economic system in the countries. For instance, the slave trade led to economic growth in America and Europe. This is because the countries had cheap source of labor hence low production cost. It also resulted to   slow economic growth in Africa. This is because the country supplied slaves to Europe and America and this lead to shortage of lab or in the country, thus slow economic growth. It also affected the social systems in the country. Most of the societies in Europe, America and Africa did not support the slave trade as it affected societal norms and values. Slave trade affected the lives of the slaves (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).


The Ottoman Empire is considered the most powerful empire in the Islamic region. The Ottoman Empire was dominated by Muslims, but it had other groups who were non Muslims. The rulers of the Ottoman Empire did not relate well with the non Muslims in the empire. This is because the rulers used the non Muslims as slaves. Slavery was common in the Islamic region especially the Ottoman Empire. The ottoman rulers used   military powers to conquer other states to get slaves and military officials. People who were arrested from the Christian territories were converted to Islam and used in military operations. For instance, they were groped into various Islamic groups like the “yeni Cheri and Jaisaries”. The groups gave the empire military flexibility and made it powerful. In addition, the rulers used child levy.

This happened during recruitment. The   rulers imposed levy for male children from Christian villages in Balkans. Children who were recruited during this time were allowed to stay with Turk families to learn the Muslim language before being send to school for military training and arts. Slavery and military conquest resulted to poor relationship between the rulers in Ottoman Empire and other non Muslim people. The non Muslims were not allowed to hold power, but they were allowed to work as slaves and in the military. The poor relationships between the   rulers of the Ottoman Empire and the non Muslim resulted to suffering among the non Muslims (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).

The Mughal Empire is an Indian empire and it is different from the Ottoman Empire. The Mughal Empire was dominated by the Indian unlike the Ottoman Empire. The rulers of the Mughal Empire found it difficulty to maintain a good relationship with non Muslims. The Mughal Empire did not tolerate Muslims as they destroyed their culture. The rulers of the Mughal Empire devised various ways to ensure the Muslims and the Hindus   coexisted. For instance, they encouraged intermarriage and common laws and religion.

The rulers had a positive relationship with non Muslims as they believed that the non Muslims would not destroy their culture. The rulers did not use non Muslims as slaves. In   addition, they did not capture children from non Muslim families for military purposes like the rulers from the Ottoman Empire. This made it easy for the groups to coexist. The two empires were different as the Ottoman Empire did not treat non Muslims well instead it used them as slaves. On the other hand, the Mughal empire rulers interacted well with   non Muslims as they were not harmful (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).


The Ottoman Empire was considered powerful during the early modern period because of   various reasons. First, the Ottoman Empire became powerful because of availability of the military and flexibility of the military. The rulers from the ottoman empirewere able to recruit military officials from non Muslims like Christian villages. The rulers used   military conquest to get young men from Christian villages. After that the young men were allowed to leave with Turkish families so as to learn the right language. Then after learning the language the young men were taken to school where they were educated on military activities and literal art. This in turn ensured the rulers had a strong army unlike other empire. Hence, it made it easy for the emperors to conquer other states and in crease their political and economic power.

The navy in the country was headed by Turkish, Greeks and other groups. This ensured the empire force was balanced and hence   helped in defeating other empires like Safavid during war. The Ottoman Empire became powerful due to economic growth. The rulers in the empire were able to raise money   from different people in the country. For instance, they were able to raise money from rich men and other business people. This made it easy for the rulers to pay for military and cater for other needs. The rulers raised money from tax farming. Apart from the economic factors, political factors contributed a lot to the growth of the empire.

The military forces in the empire concentrated on conquering various groups in the region so as to increase their political powers. For instance, it conquered Christian enemies in various areas like Greece and Balkan to increase its political base. In 1939, the army conquered Serbian kingdom during the Kosovo war. It also conquered other areas in Europe and controlled them. They also used social factors to increase their territory. For instance, the military took advantage of non Muslim groups in the country to increase its size. The rulers recruited military from the non Muslim groups and used them to acquire more powers (Bulliet, Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, 2008).


 Bulliet,R.W.,Bulliet,R.,Crossley,P.K.,Headrick,D.R.,& et al.(2008).The Earth and Its Peoples.A global history since 1500. Cengage Learning


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